Combined Severity Factor for Predicting Sugar Recovery in Acid-Catalyzed Pretreatment Followed by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
The severity factor developed by Chornet and Overend combines the effects of temperature and time in a single function to allow translation of sugar and oligomer release results from operation at one combination of temperature and time to realize nearly the same release at a different combination of these two variables. This factor has proven very valuable in correlating results from pretreatment of a variety of cellulosic biomass materials with just hot water or steam. The severity factor concept was subsequently extended to facilitate trading off among temperature, time, and acid concentration for pretreatments that employ dilute acid to hydrolyze hemicellulose. The resulting combined severity factor can be derived from simple first-order kinetic models that have been shown to describe sugar release from dilute acid pretreatment. In addition to describing hemicellulose sugar yields, it has been shown that the combined severity factor can provide some insights into expected sugar release yields from subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids left after dilute acid pretreatment. Furthermore, a simple adjustment in one parameter of the combined severity factor makes it possible to translate from one combination of temperature, time, and acid concentration conditions that maximizes yields from acid-catalyzed breakdown of xylooligomers released in hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass to a different set of conditions for maximum sugar release.
KeywordsSwitch Grass Corn Stover Cellulosic Biomass Dilute Acid Pretreatment Xylose Yield
We gratefully acknowledge support by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science through the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC). We also appreciate the support by the Ford Motor Company of the Chair in Environmental Engineering at the University of California Riverside (UCR) and the Bioproduct Sciences and Engineering Laboratory and Department of Biological Systems Engineering at Washington State University (WSU) that augments our ability to undertake such reviews.
- Cai CM, Nagane N, Kumar R, Wyman CE (2014) Coupling of metal halides with a co-solvent to achieve co-production of furfural and HMF from lignocellulosic biomass. Paper presented at American Chemical Society, Division of Energy Fuels 59(1):352Google Scholar
- Foody P (1984) Method for increasing the accessibility of cellulose in lignocellulosic materials, particularly hardwoods agricultural residues and the like. US Patent 4461648Google Scholar
- Han YW, Callihan CD (1974) Cellulose fermentation. Effect of substrate pretreatment on microbial growth. Appl Microbiol 27(1):159–165Google Scholar
- Humbird D, Davis R, Tao L, Kinchin C, Hsu D, Aden A, Schoen P, Lukas J, Olthof B, Worley M, Sexton D, Dudgeon D (2011) Process design and economics for biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol: dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-47764, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, COGoogle Scholar
- Knappert DR, Grethlein HE, Converse AO (1980) Partial acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis. In: Biotechnology bioengineering symposium, XXII, pp 1449–1463Google Scholar
- Kobayashi T, Sakai Y 1956 Wood saccharification with strong sulfuric acid. IV. Hydrolysis rate of pentosan in dilute sulfuric acid. Mokuzai Toka Shingikai Hokoku, No. 5, p 1Google Scholar
- Langholtz MH, Stokes BJ, Eaton LM (2016) 2016 Billion-ton report: advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, vol 1: Economic availability of feedstocksGoogle Scholar
- Rydholm SA (1985) Pulping processes. Robert Krieger Publishing, MalabarGoogle Scholar
- Sciamanna AF, Freitas RP, Wilke CR (1977) Composition and utilization of cellulose for chemicals from agricultural residues. LBL Technical Report LBL-5966, California University, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
- Trajano HL, Wyman CE (2013) Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at low pH. Wiley, Chichester, pp 103–128Google Scholar
- Wright JD, Wyman CE 1988 Overview of acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosics to liquid fuels. Report SERI/SP-231-3245Google Scholar
- Yan L, Pu Y, Bowden M, Ragauskas AJ, Yang B (2015) Physiochemical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass dissolution by flowthrough pretreatment. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & EngineeringGoogle Scholar