Advertisement

Tracing the Salt Crystallization Front in Limestone Using the DRMS

  • Sevasti Modestou
  • Ioannis Ioannou
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering book series (SSGG)

Abstract

Salt crystallization is widely recognised as one of the most damaging factors affecting stone monuments and buildings. The conservation of stone heritage suffering from weathering due to the presence of salts can be very expensive and laborious. Furthermore, the assessment of salt-laden buildings alone is often challenging and costly in its own right. This paper focuses on the use of a micro-destructive technique, the Drilling Resistance Measurement System (DRMS), to trace the salt crystallization front in natural building stone subjected to continuous partial immersion in a salt solution. The results provide strong evidence of the efficacy of micro-drilling to “map” the crystallization front. This is facilitated by increased resistances recorded during drilling in areas where pore clogging due to salt crystallization occurs. The experimental results are important for future research aiming to validate models relating rising damp to salt crystallization. The combination of DRMS and continuous partial immersion in salt solution laboratory tests may also be used to investigate the effect of water repellents and coatings/finishes on salt transport and crystallization in porous materials. Last but not least, the potential of the portable DRMS to trace the salt crystallization front in limestone may be used to detect cryptoflorescence in situ, on stone monuments, before it becomes damaging.

Keywords

Penetration Rate Water Repellent Capillary Rise Crystallization Front Salt Transport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Amoroso, G., Fassina, V.: Stone Decay and Conservation—Atmospheric Pollution, Cleaning, Consolidation and Protection. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1983)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benavente, D., García del Cura, M.A., Bernabéu, A., Ordóñez, S.: Quantification of salt weathering in porous stones using an experimental continuous partial immersion method. Eng. Geol. 59, 313–325 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benavente, D., García del Cura, M.A., García-Guinea, J., Sánchez-Moral, S., Ordóñez, S.: Role of pore structure in salt crystallization in unsaturated porous stone. J. Cryst. Growth 260, 532–544 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Delgado, R.J., Ferreira, P.A., Rodrigues da Costa, D.: Tracing of decay profiles and evaluation of stone treatments by means of microdrilling techniques. J. Cult. Heritage 3, 117–125 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Desarnaud, J., Bonn, D., Shahidzadeh, N.: The pressure induced by salt crystallization in confinement. Sci. Rep. 6, 30856 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doehne, E.: Salt weathering: a selective review. In: Siegesmund et al. (ed.) Natural stone, weathering phenomena, conservation strategies and case studies, vol. 205, pp. 51–6. Geological Society, London (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Espinosa-Marzal, R.M., Scherer, G.W.: Mechanisms of damage by salt. In: Smith, B.J. et al. (eds) Limestone in the Built Environment: Present-Day Challenges for the Preservation of the Past, vol. 331, pp. 61–77. Geological Society, London (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Exadaktylos, G., Tiano, P., Filareto, C.: Validation of a model of rotary drilling of rocks with the drilling force measurement. Int. J. Restor. Build. Monuments 3, 307–340 (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gonçalves, T.D., Pel, L., Rodrigues, J.D.: Influence of paints on drying and salt distribution processes in porous building materials. Constr. Build. Mater. 23, 1751–1759 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goudie, A.S.: Further experimental investigation of rock weathering by salt and other mechanical processes. Zeitschift fur Geomorphologie, Supplementband 21, 1–12 (1974)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall, C., Hoff, W.D.: Rising damp: capillary rise dynamics in walls. Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 1871–1884 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ioannou, I., Hoff, W.D.: Water repellent influence on salt crystallisation in masonry. Proc. ICE Constr. Mater. 161, 17–23 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    La Iglesia, A., Gonzalez, V., López-Acevedo, V., Viedma, C.: Salt crystallization in porous construction materials I. Estimation of crystallization pressure. J. Cryst. Growth 177, 111–118 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    López-Acevedo, V., Viedma, C., Gonzalez, V., La Iglesia, A.: Salt crystallization in porous construction materials II: mass transport and crystallization processes. J. Cryst. Growth 182, 103–110 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Modestou, S., Theodoridou, M., Fournari, R., Ioannou, I.: Physico-mechanical properties and durability performance of building and decorative carbonate stones from Cyprus. In: Přikryl et al. (eds.) Sustainable Use of Traditional Geomaterials in Construction Practice, 416, pp. 145–162. Geological Society, London (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Modestou, S., Theodoridou, M., Ioannou, I.: Micro-destructive mapping of the salt crystallization front in limestone. Eng. Geol. 193, 337–347 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rivas, T., Alvarez, E., Mosquera, M.J., Alejano, L., Taboada, J.: Crystallization modifiers applied in granite desalination: the role of the stone pore structure. Constr. Build. Mater. 24, 766–776 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ruiz-Agudo, E., Mees, F., Jacobs, P., Rodriguez-Navarro, C.: The role of saline solution properties on porous limestone salt weathering by magnesium and sodium sulfates. Environ. Geol. 52, 269–281 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scherer, G.W.: Stress from crystallization of salt. Cem. Concr. Res. 34, 1613–1624 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Scherer, G.W.: Crystallization in pores. Cem. Concr. Res. 29, 1347–1358 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sperling, C.H.B., Cooke, R.U.: Laboratory Simulation of rock weathering by salt crystallization and hydration processes in hot, arid environments. Earth Surf. Proc. Land. 10, 541–555 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Theodoridou, M., Dagrain, F., Ioannou, I.: Micro-destructive cutting techniques for the characterization of natural limestone. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 76, 98–103 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tiano, P.: The use of microdrilling techniques for the characterisation of stone materials. In: PRO 26: International RILEM Workshop on On-Site Control and Non-Destructive Evaluation of Masonry Structures, 12–14 November 2001, Mantova, Italy (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    van Hees, R.P.J., Brocken, H.J.P.: Damage development to treated brick masonry in a long-term salt crystallisation test. Constr. Build. Mater. 18, 331–338 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CyprusNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Scottish Universities Environmental Research CentreUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations