Classification, Evaluation, and Management of Congenital Peripheral Vascular Malformations

  • Naiem NassiriEmail author
  • Lauren A. Huntress


The International Society for Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) categorizes congenital vascular malformations by their flow properties into high-flow arteriovenous malformations, slow-flow venous and lymphatic malformations, and congenital mixed syndromes. Despite historically confusing and often conflicting nomenclature and classification schemes, our understanding of the natural history, hemodynamics, and treatment outcomes of these lesions has expanded and evolved over the last few decades. As such, certain fundamental diagnostic and therapeutic principles have been established and are considered standard of care. It is crucial to adhere to these overarching principles in the overall management of these lesions. These are highlighted and expanded upon in this chapter. Furthermore, recently discovered biomolecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular malformations and affiliated syndromes are briefly reviewed.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vascular and Endovascular SurgeryYale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, VA Connecticut Healthcare SystemsNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA

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