In-Stent Restenosis: Definition, Entity of the Problem, Etiopathogenesis and Treatment Options

  • Davide PirainoEmail author
  • Giuliana Cimino
  • Dario Buccheri
  • Giuseppe Andolina


In-stent restenosis (ISR) still represents a frequent limitation of percutaneous coronary intervention despite the introduction of latest-generation drug-eluting stents (DES), drastically lowering the overall incidence of ISR. Thus, the treatment of DES ISR remains a real brainteaser for interventional cardiologists.

Neointimal hyperplasia and neoatherosclerosis are the two main causes of ISR. Understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) appears critical to treat ISR optimally using the available options such as the latest-generation DES, drug-coated balloons (DCB), or bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davide Piraino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giuliana Cimino
    • 1
  • Dario Buccheri
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Andolina
    • 1
  1. 1.Interventional Cardiology Unit, Department of Cardiology, «P.Giaccone» Universitary Hospital of PalermoPalermoItaly

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