Meta-analysis of Observational Plus Randomized Studies

Combined Meta-analysis of Different Classes of Study Designs
  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


This chapter reviews a publication from our group. It is the first publication of a combined meta-analysis of different classes of study designs. The real data example of 39,505 patients as used, showed, that combining the data from 10 observational and 7 randomized controlled trials provided more power of the pooled outcome, and a larger body of data enabling to consider a secondary outcome, i.e., excess in mortality.

Furthermore, it provided no publication bias, no lack of robustness, and little and clinically unimportant heterogeneity.


Observational Study Publication Bias Risk Ratio Bare Metal Stents Death Risk 
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  1. More information of the meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials is in the Chap. 6, that of the meta-analysis of observational studies is in the Chap. 8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineAlbert Schweitzer HospitalSliedrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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