Road Traffic Rules Synthesis Using Grammatical Evolution
We consider the problem of the automatic synthesis of road traffic rules, motivated by a future scenario in which human and machine-based drivers will coexist on the roads: in that scenario, current road rules may be either unsuitable or inefficient. We approach the problem using Grammatical Evolution (GE). To this end, we propose a road traffic model which includes concepts amenable to be regulated (e.g., lanes, intersections) and which allows drivers to temporarily evade traffic rules when there are no better alternatives. In our GE framework, each individual is a set of rules and its fitness is a weighted sum of traffic efficiency and safety, as resulting from a number of simulations where all drivers are subjected to the same rules. Experimental results show that our approach indeed generates rules leading to a safer and more efficient traffic than enforcing no rules or rules similar to those currently used.
KeywordsSimulation Road traffic model Stochastic evolution Driverless cars
The authors are grateful to Lorenzo Castelli for his insightful comments.
- 1.Bartoli, A., De Lorenzo, A., Medvet, E., Tarlao, F.: Syntactical similarity learning by means of grammatical evolution. In: Handl, J., Hart, E., Lewis, P.R., López-Ibáñez, M., Ochoa, G., Paechter, B. (eds.) PPSN 2016. LNCS, vol. 9921, pp. 260–269. Springer, Cham (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45823-6_24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Drake, J.H., Kililis, N., Özcan, E.: Generation of VNS components with grammatical evolution for vehicle routing. In: Krawiec, K., Moraglio, A., Hu, T., Etaner-Uyar, A.Ş., Hu, B. (eds.) EuroGP 2013. LNCS, vol. 7831, pp. 25–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-37207-0_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Koza, J.R.: Genetic programming: on the programming of computers by means of natural selection, vol. 1. MIT press (1992)Google Scholar
- 10.Rizaldi, A., Althoff, M.: Formalising traffic rules for accountability of autonomous vehicles. In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp. 1658–1665. IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
- 14.Tumova, J., Hall, G.C., Karaman, S., Frazzoli, E., Rus, D.: Least-violating control strategy synthesis with safety rules. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control, HSCC 2013, pp. 1–10. ACM, New York (2013). http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2461328.2461330