Exploring the Exactitudes Portrait Series with Restricted Boltzmann Machines

  • Sam D. Verkoelen
  • Maarten H. Lamers
  • Peter van der Putten
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10198)


In this paper we explore the use of deep neural networks to analyze semi-structured series of artworks. We train stacked Restricted Boltzmann Machines on the Exactitudes collection of photo series, and use this to understand the relationship between works and series, uncover underlying features and dimensions, and generate new images. The projection of the series on the two major decorrelated features (PCA on top of Boltzmann features) results in a visualization that clearly reflects the semi structured nature of the photos series, although the original features provide better classification results when assigning photographs to series. This work provides a useful case example of understanding structure that is uncovered by deep neural networks, as well as a tool to analyze the underlying structure of a collection of visual artworks, as a very first step towards a robot curator.


Feature Space Deep Learning Deep Neural Network Restrict Boltzmann Machine Pixel Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We acknowledge Ari Versluis and Ellie Uyttenbroek as the creators of Exactitudes and owners of all intellectual rights and privileges, and are grateful to them for sharing this wonderful collection with the world via


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam D. Verkoelen
    • 1
  • Maarten H. Lamers
    • 1
  • Peter van der Putten
    • 1
  1. 1.Media Technology Group, Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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