P Deficiency: A Major Limiting Factor for Rhizobial Symbiosis

  • Alvaro Sanz-Saez
  • Fermín Morales
  • Cesar Arrese-Igor
  • Iker Aranjuelo


Together with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) has been described as the main plant macronutrient limiting growth. Although P is abundant in many soils, its availability for plants is low. For this reason, P is provided to plants largely through the application of P-enriched fertilizers. However, since rock phosphate reserves (the main source of P) are predicted to be depleted in the near future, it is crucial to understand the processes linked with a better P use efficiency. P is a target structural constituent of energetic compounds (ATP, ADP), nucleic acids, phosphate sugars, etc., that are essential for cell metabolism and plant development. Current knowledge highlights that low P availability negatively affects above- and below-ground organ growth, as a consequence, in part, of poor photosynthetic performance. While essential for all plants, the P requirement of N2-fixing plants has been described as larger than that of non N2-fixing plants, mainly as a consequence of the large P demand for biological N2 fixation (BNF) processes. Moreover, three main factors have been suggested to affect BNF under low P conditions: carbon supply, N-feedback and O2 diffusion have been identified as the main factors conditioning N2 fixation under low P availability conditions. In this chapter, we summarize current knowledge regarding P content in plant performance, with special emphasis on N2-fixing plants and the symbiotic relationship.


Biological N2 fixation Growth Legumes Nodule P deficiency Rhizobium Symbiosis 



This work was funded by the Spanish National Research and Development Programme (AGL2014-56561-P), the “I-COOP Suelos y Legumbres” Programme (2016SU0016) and their corresponding FEDER funding, and Aragón Government (A03 research group).


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alvaro Sanz-Saez
    • 1
  • Fermín Morales
    • 2
  • Cesar Arrese-Igor
    • 3
  • Iker Aranjuelo
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Plant SciencesUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Estación Experimental de Aula Dei (EEAD), CSIC, Dpto. Nutrición VegetalZaragozaSpain
  3. 3.Dpto. Ciencias del Medio NaturalUniversidad Pública de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  4. 4.Instituto de Agrobiotecnología (IdAB)Universidad Pública de Navarra-CSIC-Gobierno de NavarraPamplonaSpain

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