A Comparative Analysis of Coastal and Open-Ocean Records of the Great Chilean Tsunamis of 2010, 2014 and 2015 off the Coast of Mexico
The three great earthquakes off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 (Maule, Mw 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Iquique, Mw 8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Illapel, Mw 8.3) generated major transoceanic tsunamis that spread throughout the Pacific Ocean and were measured by numerous coastal tide gauges and open-ocean DART stations. Statistical and spectral analyses of the tsunami waves from the events recorded on the Pacific coast of Mexico enabled us to estimate parameters of the waves along the coast and to compare statistical features of the events. We also identified three coastal “hot spots” (sites having maximum tsunami risk): Puerto Angel, Puerto Madero and Manzanillo. Based on the joint spectral analyses of the tsunamis and background noise, we have developed a method for using coastal observations to determine the underlying spectrum of tsunami waves in the deep ocean. The “reconstructed” open-ocean tsunami spectra are in close agreement with the actual tsunami spectra evaluated from direct analysis of the DART records offshore of Mexico. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize the energy of the three Chilean tsunamis based on the total open-ocean tsunami energy and frequency content of the individual events.
KeywordsChilean earthquakes and tsunamis Mexican coast tide gauge records DART open-ocean tsunamis tsunami travel time spectral analysis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Contreras-López, M., Winckler, P., Sepúlveda, I., Andaur-Álvarez, A., Cortés-Molina, F., Guerrero, C. J., et al. (2016). Field survey of the 2015 Chile tsunami with emphasis on coastal wetland and conservation areas. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 173(2), 349–367. doi: 10.1007/s00024-015-1235-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Delouis, B., Nocquet, J.M., & Vallée M. (2010). Slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule earthquake, central Chile, from static and high-rate GPS, InSAR, and broadband teleseismic data. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L17305. doi: 10.1029/2009GL043899.
- Filloux, J. H., Luther, D. S., & Chave, A. D. (1991). Update on seafloor pressure and electric field observations from the north-central and northeastern Pacific: Tides, infratidal fluctuations, and barotropic flow. In B. B. Parker (Ed.), Tidal hydrodynamics (pp. 617–639). New York: J. Wiley.Google Scholar
- Fine, I. V., Cherniawsky, J. Y., Thomson, R. E., Rabinovich, A. B., & Krassovski, M. V. (2015). Observations and numerical modeling of the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami off the coast of British Columbia. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 172(3–4), 699–718. doi: 10.1007/s00024-014-1012-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gusman, A. R., Murotani, S., Satake, K., Heidarzadeh, M., Gunawan, E., Watada, S., et al. (2015). Fault slip distribution of the 2014 Iquique, Chile, earthquake estimated from ocean-wide tsunami waveforms and GPS data. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(4), 1053–1060. doi: 10.1002/2014GL062604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Honda, K., Terada, T., Yoshida, Y., & Isitani, D. (1908). An investigation on the secondary undulations of oceanic tides (p. 108). J. College Sci., Imper. Univ. Tokyo.Google Scholar
- Miller, G. R. (1972). Relative spectra of tsunamis (p. 7). Hawaii Inst. Geophys, HIG-72-8.Google Scholar
- Miller, G. R., Munk, W. H., & Snodgrass, F. E. (1962). Long-period waves over California’s borderland. Part II, Tsunamis. Journal of Marine Research, 20(1), 31–41.Google Scholar
- Mofjeld, H. O. (2009). Tsunami measurements. In A. Robinson & E. Bernard (Eds.), The Sea, vol. 15, Tsunamis (pp. 201–235). Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Omira, R., Baptista, M. A., & Lisboa, F. (2016). Tsunami characteristics along the Peru-Chile trench: analysis of the 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel, the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique and the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule tsunamis in the near-field. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 173(4), 1063–1077. doi: 10.1007/s00024-016-1277-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ortiz, M., Kostoglodov, V., Singh, S. K., & Pacheco, J. (2000). New constraints on the uplift of October 9, 1995 Jalisco-Colima earthquake (Mw 8) based on the analysis of tsunami records at Manzanillo and Navidad, Mexico. Geofísica International, 39, 349–357.Google Scholar
- Pararas-Carayannis, G. (2010). The earthquake and tsunami of 27 February 2010 in Chile—evaluation of source mechanism and of near and far-field tsunami effects. Science of Tsunami Hazards, 29(2), 96–126.Google Scholar
- Parker, B. B. (2007). Tidal analysis and prediction, NOAA Spec. Publ. NOS CO-OPS 3 (p. 378). Maryland: Silver Spring.Google Scholar
- Sanchez, A. J., & Farreras, S. F. (1983). Maximum entropy spectral analysis of tsunamis along the Mexican coast, 1957–1979. In K. Iida & T. Iwasaki (Eds.), Tsunamis: Their science and engineering (pp. 147–159). Tokyo: Terra Sci.Google Scholar
- Sanchez, A. J., & Farreras, S. F. (1993). Catalog of Tsunamis on the Western Coast of Mexico (p. 79). Boulder, CO: National Geophysical Data Center.Google Scholar
- Thomson, R. E., & Emery, W. J. (2014). Data analysis methods in physical oceanography (3rd ed., p. 716). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Thomson, R. E., Rabinovich, A. B., & Krassovski, M. V. (2007). Double jeopardy: Concurrent arrival of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami and storm-generated waves on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L15607. doi: 10.1029/2007GL030685.
- Thomson, R. E., Fine, I. V., Rabinovich, A. B., Mihaly, S. F., Davis, E. E., Heesemann, M., & Krassovski, M. V. (2011). Observations of the 2009 Samoa tsunami by the NEPTUNE-Canada cabled observatory: Test data for an operational regional tsunami model. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L11701. doi: 10.1029/2011GL046728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Titov, V. V. (2009). Tsunami forecasting. In A. Robinson & E. Bernard (Eds.), The Sea, vol. 15, Tsunamis (pp. 371–400). Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Vich, M., & Monserrat, S. (2009). The source spectrum for the Algerian tsunami of 21 May 2003 estimated from coastal tide gauge data. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L20610. doi: 10.1029/2009GL039970.
- Wilson, R. I., Dengler, L. A., Legg, M. R., Long, K., & Miller, K. M. (2010). The 2010 Chilean tsunami on the California coastline. Seismological Research Letters, 81(3), 545–546.Google Scholar