Advertisement

Mozambican Labour Migrations, Remittances and Development: Evidence, Practices and Implications for Policy

  • Sara Mercandalli
  • Christopher Changwe Nshimbi
  • Inocent Moyo
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies of Sustainable Business in Africa book series (PSSBA)

Abstract

Based on a review of the literature and interviews conducted between 2009 and 2011 with Mozambican migrants and members of their families, this chapter investigates some of the main characteristics of labour migration as well as the importance of remittances for the livelihoods of Mozambican households in the post-apartheid period. It then identifies some of the ways that can be explored in order to make the most of the potential of migration and remittances for development, instead of the prevalent dependent relationship. The chapter raises some of the challenges in the formulation of a regional labour migration policy that could promote the use of remittances for development.

Keywords

Labour migrations Remittances Development Regional labour migration policy Mozambique South Africa 

References

  1. Abrahamsson, H., and A. Nilsson. 1995. Mozambique: The Troubled Transition, from Socialist Construction to Free Market Capitalism. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, R., and J. Page. 2005. Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries? World Development 33 (3): 1645–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrett, C.B., T. Reardon, and P. Webb. 2001. Nonfarm Income Diversification and Household Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, Dynamics, and Policy Implications. Journal of Development Studies 1 (35): 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black, R. 2004. Migration and Pro-Poor Policies in Africa. Sussex Centre for Migration Research, Development Research Center on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  5. Black, R., J. Crush, S. Peberdy, S. Ammassari, L. McLean Hilken, S. Mouillesseux, C. Pooley, and R. Rajkotia. 2006a. Migration and Development in Africa: An Overview. SAMP: Cape Town.Google Scholar
  6. Black, R., C. Natali, and J. Skinner. 2006b. Migration and Inequality: World Development Report 2006. Background Papers 26.Google Scholar
  7. Casale, D., and C. Posell, 2004. What Has the Feminisation of the Labour Market ‘Bought’ Women in South Africa? Trends in Labour Force Participation, Employment and Earnings. 1995–2001, DPRU Working Paper 84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carletto, G., K. Covarrubias, B. Davis, M. Krausova, K. Stamoulis, P. Winters, and A. Zezza. 2007. Rural Income Generating Activities in Developing Countries. Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics 4 (1): 146–193.Google Scholar
  9. Covane, L.A. 2001. O trabalho migratório e a agricultura no sul do Moçambique (1920–1992), 306. Maputo: Promedia9.Google Scholar
  10. Crush, J., V. Williams, and S. Peberdy. 2005. Migration in Southern Africa. A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration. https://womin.org.za/…/Crush%20%20Williams%20and%20Peberdy%20-%20Migrati. Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  11. de Haan, A. 1999. Livelihoods and Poverty: The Role of Migration—A Critical Review of the Migration Literature. Journal of Development Studies 36 (2): 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Haas, H. 2007. Remittances, Migrations and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature. Social Policy and Development Program Paper, 46.Google Scholar
  13. de Haas, H. 2010. Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. International Migration Review 44 (1): 227–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Department of Home Affairs. 2017. Lesotho Special Permit (LSP) Registration. http://www.dha.gov.za/index.php/notices/747-lesotho-special-permit-lsp-registration. Accessed 24 Jan 2017.
  15. De Vletter, F. 2006a. Microfinance in Mozambique: Achievements, Prospects and Challenges. A Report of the Mozambique Microfinance Facility, MMF, Waterloo, ON.Google Scholar
  16. De Vletter, F. 2006b. Migration and Development in Mozambique: Poverty, Inequality and Survival. Cape Town: Idasa, Southern African Research Centre.Google Scholar
  17. Dodson, B., T. Simelane, D. Tevera, T. Green, A. Chikanda. and F. De Vletter. 2008. Migration, Remittances and Gender in Southern Africa. Migration Policy Series. The Southern African Migration Project. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  18. Ellerman, D. 2004. Jane Jacobs on Development. Oxford Development Studies 32 (4): 507–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. First, R., M. Forjaz, and A. Manghezi. 1998. O mineiro moçambicano. Um estudo sobre exportação de mão de obra em Inhambane. Maputo: UEM, Centro de Estudos Africanos.Google Scholar
  20. Gallego, J.M., and M. Mendolaz. 2011. Labor Migration and Social Networks Participation: Evidence from Southern Mozambique. Development Working Papers 279.Google Scholar
  21. Gaspar, N. 2006. The Reduction of Mozambican Workers in South African Mines 1975–1992: A Case Study of the Consequences for Gaza Province, District of Chibuto. Mondlane: Universidade Eduardo.Google Scholar
  22. Ghosh, B. 2006. Las remesas de migrantes y el desarrollo: Mitos, retorica y realidades. Geneva and The Hague: International Organization for Migration (IOM) and The Hague Process.Google Scholar
  23. Haggblade, S., P. Hazzel, and T. Reardon. 2005. The Rural Nonfarm Economy: Pathway Out of Poverty or Pathway In? Presented at International Research Workshop ‘Future of Small Farms’, Kent, UK, 26–29 June.Google Scholar
  24. IFAD. 2006. Village Banks: The New Generation—How IFAD Helped FINCA Set Its Village Banking Programmes on the Road to Commercialization.Google Scholar
  25. IIUD [Institute for International Urban Development]. 2008. Final Report: Migration, Remittances and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.Google Scholar
  26. Republica de Moçambique. 2008. Relatorio sobre Objetivos de Desemvolvimento do Milenio (ODM). Ministerio de planificação e desemvolvimento.Google Scholar
  27. Labour Market Review. 2007. Labour Migration and South Africa: Towards a Fairer Deal for Migrants in the South African Economy. http://www.labour.gov.za/DOL/downloads/documents/annual-reports/labour-market-review-report/2007/labourmigration2007part1.pdf. Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  28. Landau, L. 2006. Transplants and Transients: Idioms of Belonging and Dislocation in Inner-City Johannesburg. African Studies Review 49 (2): 125–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lucas, R., and O. Stark. 1985. Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana. Journal of Political Economy 93: 901–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Macdonald, D.A. 2000. Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner: Migration from Lesotho, Mozambique and Zimbabwe to South Africa. International Migration Review 34 (3): 813–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Massey, D.S. 1990. Social Structure, Household Strategies, and the Cumulative Causation of Migration. Population Index 56: 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mercandalli, S. 2015. Migrations et recompositions des stratégies socio-économiques des familles rurales au Mozambique: une lecture institutionnelle des circulations contemporaines. Paris: Mondes en développement, De Boeck Supérieur.Google Scholar
  33. Mercandalli, S., and W. Anseeuw. 2014. Migrations et stratégies des familles Mozambicaines: réflexion pour une politique intégrée de développement rural. Revue Tiers Monde Agricultures familiales. Trajectoires, Modernités et Controverses 1 (220): 63–81.Google Scholar
  34. Moyo, I., and M.D. Nicolau. 2016. Remittances and Development: Zimbabwean Migrant Teachers in South Africa and their Impact on their Zimbabwean Families. African Population Studies 30 (2): 2506–2519.Google Scholar
  35. Moyo, I., and C.C. Nshimbi. 2017. Of Borders and Fortresses: South Africa’s Attitude Towards Cross-Border Movement as a Critical Factor in SADC’s Integration Project. Journal of Bordelans Studies.Google Scholar
  36. Munslow, B. 1983. Mozambique: The Revolution and Its Origins. London: Longman Group.Google Scholar
  37. Nshimbi, C.C., and L. Fioramonti. 2013. A Region without Borders? Policy Frameworks for Regional Labour Migration Towards South Africa. Johannesburg: African Centre for Migration and Society, University of the Witwatersrand.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nshimbi, C.C., and L. Fioramonti. 2014. The Will to Integrate: South Africa’s Responses to Regional Migration from the SADC Region. African Development Review 26 (S1): 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Observatorio do Meio Rural [OMR]. 2015. Relações Transfronteiriças de Moçambique. http://omrmz.org/omrweb/publicacoes/observador-rural-27/.
  40. Orozco, M. 2002. Remittances, the Rural Sector, and Policy Options in Latin America. Rural Finance Innovation Case Study. Paving the Way Forward for Rural Finance: An International Conference on Best Practices.Google Scholar
  41. Pendleton, W., J. Crush, E. Campbell, et al. 2006. Migration, Remittances and Development in Southern Africa. Cape Town, IDASA: Southern Africa Migration Project.Google Scholar
  42. Ratha, D., and W. Shaw. 2006. South–South Migration and Remittances. World Bank Working Paper (No. 102).Google Scholar
  43. Republic of South Africa/Republic of Mozambique. 2011. Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the Government of the Republic of Mozambique on the Establishment of a Bi-National Commission. Maputo, Mozambique.Google Scholar
  44. Skeldon, R. 2002. Migration and Poverty. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 17: 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skinner, C., R. Devey, and V. Imraan. 2004. Definitions, Data and the Informal Economy in South Africa: A Critical Analysis. Paper Presented at the GEM–IWG Conference on Engendering Macroeconomics and International Economics, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  46. Southern African Development Community [SADC]. 1992. Declaration and Treaty Establishing the Southern African Development Community. Windhoek.Google Scholar
  47. Tambama, J. 2011. The Impact of Remittances on Zimbabwean Economic Development. http://ir.uz.ac.zw/bitstream/handle/10646/1289/Tambama_The_impact_of_remittances_on_Zimbabwean_economic_development.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  48. Truen, S., and S. Chisadza. 2012. The South Africa–SADC Remittance Channel. Prepared by DNA Economics for FinMark Trust. Finmark Trust. http://cenfri.org/documents/Remittances/2012/The%20South%20Africa-SADC%20remittance%20channel_Report.pdf. Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
  49. UNDP, Trends in Total Migrant Stock, 2012 and 2009 Revision.Google Scholar
  50. Van den Berg, J. 1987. A Peasant Form of Production: Wage Dependent Agriculture in Southern Mozambique. Canadian Journal of African Studies 21 (3): 375–389.Google Scholar
  51. Wa Kabwe-Segatti, A. 2008. Reforming South African Immigration Policy in the Post-Apartheid Period (1990–2006): What It Means and What It Takes. In Migration in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Challenges and Questions to Policy-Makers, eds. A. Wa Kabwe-Sehatti, and L. Landau. Paris: Agence Française de Développement, Research Department.Google Scholar
  52. Wallerstein, I. 1974. The Modern World System, I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Wentel, M., and K. Tlabela. 2006. Historical Background to South African Migration. In Migration in South and Southern Africa: Dynamics and Determinants, ed. P. Kok, D. Gelderblom, J. Oucho, and J. Van Zyl, 71–96. Cape Town: HSRC Press.Google Scholar
  54. World Bank. 2005. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  55. World Bank. 2011a. The Migration and Remittances Fact Book 2011. Migration and Remittances Unit. www.worldbank.org/prospects/migrantionandremittances.
  56. World Bank. 2011. Remittances Markets in Africa. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  57. Wuyts, M. 1978. Peasants and Rural Economy in Mozambique. Maputo: Centro de Estudos Africanos [Center of African Studies].Google Scholar
  58. Yang et al. 2014. Mobilizing Migrant Remittances for Agricultural Modernization in Mozambique. Mozambique: International Growth Centre.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Mercandalli
    • 1
  • Christopher Changwe Nshimbi
    • 2
  • Inocent Moyo
    • 3
  1. 1.CIRAD/Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn), Department of Political SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science and AgricultureUniversity of ZululandKwaDlangezwaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations