Advertisement

History, Trends and Dynamics of Cross-Border Movements and Trade in the SADC Region

  • Christopher Changwe Nshimbi
  • Inocent Moyo
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies of Sustainable Business in Africa book series (PSSBA)

Abstract

Cross-Border migration in the Southern African region has a long history. For example, from the late 1800s, Mozambicans worked seasonally on farms in the Western Cape of South Africa. Furthermore, in the 1860s, large-scale migration to the diamond fields in Kimberly from Mozambique, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi and Swaziland, among others, preceded migration to the gold mines on the Witwatersrand in the 1880s. This migration increased significantly in the 1990s. The exact numbers of undocumented migrants in particular are unknown. What is certain is that the Southern African region is characterized by complex historical patterns of cross-border movements. This is the setting within which this Chapter explores these complex migration trajectories, with the aim of demonstrating how this provides a template for the current migration patterns and its implications for the SADC region.

Keywords

SADC region Migration Cross-Border migration 

References

  1. Afrika, J.K., and G. Ajumbo. 2012. Informal Cross Border Trade in Africa. Africa Development Bank: Africa Economic Brief.Google Scholar
  2. Barnett, J., and M. Webber. 2009. Accommodating Migration to Promote Adaptation to Climate Change. Commission on Climate Change and Development.Google Scholar
  3. Brenton, P., C.B. Bucekuderhwa, C. Hossein, S. Nagaki, and J.B. Ntagoma, 2011. Risky Business: Poor Women Cross-Border Traders in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Africa Trade Policy Note, 11. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  4. Crush, J., E. Campbell, T. Green, S. Nangulah, and H. Simelane, 2006. States of Vulnerability: The Future Brain Drain to South Africa. Migration Policy Series, No 42. Cape Town: IDASA.Google Scholar
  5. Declaration and Treaty of the Southern African Development Community. 1992. Accessed from http://www.sadc.int/documents-publications/show/826/11/09/13.
  6. Higgins, K., and Turner, L. 2010. Integrating Poverty and Social Analysis into Aid for Trade Programs: Trade Facilitation and Trade-Related Infrastructure. Brief 3. London: Department for International Development.Google Scholar
  7. Hough, M. 1996. Illegal Aliens/Migrants in Namibia. Who goes there? Perspectives on Clandestine Migration and Illegal Aliens in South Africa, 43–60. Pretoria: HSCR Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Hussein, S. 2003. Of Myths and Migration: Illegal Immigration into South Africa. Pretoria: UNISA Press.Google Scholar
  9. Moyo, I. 2014. A Case Study of Black African Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Inner City Johannesburg Using the Mixed Embeddedness Approach. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 12 (3): 250–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nshimbi, C.C., and L. Fioramonti. 2013. A Region without Borders? Policy Frameworks for Regional Labour Migration Towards South Africa. Johannesburg: African Centre for Migration and Society, University of the Witwatersrand.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nshimbi, C.C., and L. Fioramonti. 2014. The Will to Integrate: South Africa’s Responses to Regional Migration from the SADC Region. African Development Review 26 (S1): 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Parsons, N. 2008. The Pipeline: Botswana’s Reception of Refugees, 1956–68. Social Dynamics 34 (1): 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Polzer, T. 2008. South African Government and Civil Society Responses to Zimbabwean Migration, SAMP Policy Brief No. 22, Dec 2008.Google Scholar
  14. Southern African Development Community (SADC). 2005. Draft Protocol on the Facilitation of Movement of Persons. http://www.sadc.int/english/key‐documents/protocols/protocol‐on‐the‐facilitation‐of‐movement‐of‐persons. Accessed 19 Dec 2016.
  15. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). 2013. Economic Development in Africa Report 2013. Intra-African Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism. Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
  16. Wentzel, M., and K. Tlabela. 2006. Historical Background to South African Migration. In Migration in South and Southern Africa: Dynamics and Determinants, ed. P. Kok, D. Gelderblom, J.O. Oucho, and J. van Zyl, 71–95. Human Sciences Research Council: Cape Town.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn), Department of Political SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Environmental ScienceUniversity of ZululandKwaDlangezwaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations