Advertisement

The Emergence of Writing Centres in the Saudi Higher Education Landscape: A Genealogical Investigation

  • Hamid Ali Khan Eusafzai
Chapter

Abstract

The chapter, taking Foucault’s concept of genealogy as a point of departure, examines the history and the present of writing centres (WCs) in the Saudi higher education (HE) landscape. Additional objectives are to explore attitudes and practices developing in this context, and how the present may shape the future. To realize these objectives, qualitative data have been analysed. The findings show that factors like “massification” of HE, the spread of English and the influx of foreign educational practices in the kingdom played a role in the establishment of WCs and in shaping their role and the kind of pedagogy for EFL (English as a Foreign Language) writing skills resulting therein.

References

  1. Al Ankari, K., & Bin, M. (2013). Foreword. In L. Smith & A. Abouammoh (Eds.), Higher education in Saudi Arabia: Achievements, challenges, opportunities (pp. v–iv). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. G., & Knight, J. (2007). The internationalization of higher education: Motivations and realities. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 290–305. doi: 10.1177/1028315307303542 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anaïs, S. (2013). Genealogy and critical discourse analysis in conversation: Texts, discourse, critique. Critical Discourse Studies, 10(2), 123–135. doi: 10.1080/17405904.2012.744321 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baki, R. (2004). Gender-segregated education in Saudi Arabia: Its impact on social norms and the Saudi labor market. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12(28), 1–12.Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee, S. B., & Linstead, S. (2001). Globalization, multiculturalism and other fictions: Colonialism for the new millennium? Organization, 8(4), 683–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boquet, E. H. (1999). Our little secret: A history of writing centers, pre-to post-open admissions. College Composition and Communication, 50(3), 463–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruffee, K. (1984). Peer tutoring and the conversation of mankind. In R. Barnett & S. Blumner (Eds.), The Longman guide to writing center theory and practice (pp. 206–218). New York: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
  8. Carino, P. (1995). Early writing centers: Toward a history. The Writing Center Journal, 15(2), 103–115.Google Scholar
  9. Carino, P. (1996). Open admissions and the construction of writing center history: A tale of three models. The Writing Center Journal, 17(1), 30–48.Google Scholar
  10. Chnag, T. (2013). The idea of a writing center in Asian countries: A preliminary search of models in Taiwan. Praxis, 10(2), 1–17.Google Scholar
  11. CIA. (2016). The World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html
  12. Clark, N. (2014). Higher education in Saudi Arabia—WENR. Retrieved December 17, 2016, from http://wenr.wes.org/2014/11/higher-education-in-saudi-arabia
  13. Dafouz, E., & Camacho-Miñano, M. M. (2016). Exploring the impact of English-medium instruction on university student academic achievement: The case of accounting. English for Specific Purposes, 44, 57–67. doi: 10.1016/j.esp.2016.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drucker, P. (1998). From capitalism to knowledge society. In N. Dale (Ed.), The knowledge economy (pp. 15–34). Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  15. Elshaikh, E. (2015). The centre for writing in English at King Saud University, Riyadh—Saudi Arabia: A site for writing support and research. News from the Writing Centers, 4–5.Google Scholar
  16. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punishment: The birth of the prison. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  17. Foucault, M. (1991). Nietzsche, genealogy, history. In P. Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault reader (pp. 78–94). Middlesex: Penguin.Google Scholar
  18. Garland, D. (2014). What is a “history of the present”? On Foucault’s genealogies and their critical preconditions. Punishment & Society, 16(4), 365–384. doi: 10.1177/1462474514541711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grinberg, J., & Saavedra, E. R. (2000). The constitution of bilingual/ESL education as a disciplinary practice: Genealogical explorations. Review of Educational Research, 70(4), 419–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Habibi, N. (2015). Is Saudi Arabia training too many graduates? University World News. Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20150714013422488
  21. Harris, M. (1985). Theory and reality: The ideal writing center(s). The Writing Center Journal, 5(2/1), 4–9.Google Scholar
  22. Harris, M. (1988). Writing Center Concept—International Writing Centers Association. Retrieved December 15, 2016, from http://writingcenters.org/resources/starting-a-writing-cente/writing-center-concept/
  23. Harris, M. (1995). What’s up and what’s in: Trends and traditions in writing centers. In C. Murphy & J. Law (Eds.), Landmark essays on writing centers (pp. 27–36). New York: Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  24. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodeled: Definition, approaches, and rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5–31. doi: 10.1177/1028315303260832 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koch, N. (2014). The shifting geopolitics of higher education: Inter/nationalizing elite universities in Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, and beyond. Geoforum, 56, 46–54. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kubota, R. (2002). The impact of globalization on language teaching in Japan. In D. Block & D. Cameron (Eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 13–28). New York: Routledge, Taylor Francis.Google Scholar
  27. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). A postmethod perspective on English language teaching. World Englishes, 22(4), 539–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2013). Rethinking global perspectives and local initiatives in language teaching. In S. Said & L. Zhang (Eds.), … Teachers and teaching: Global perspectives … (pp. 317–323). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. McPhail, K. (2001). The genealogy of methodology and the methodology of genealogy: Putting accounting into crisis. In The Third Asia Pacific Interdisciplinary Research in Accounting Conference (pp. 1–36), Adelaide.Google Scholar
  30. Meadmore, D., Hatcher, C., & Mcwilliam, E. (2000). Getting tense about genealogy. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 13(5), 463–476. doi: 10.1080/09518390050156413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MOHE. (2013). King Abdullah Scholarship Program.Google Scholar
  32. Mok, K. (2007). Questing for Internationalization of Universities in Asia: Critical reflections. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 433–454. doi: 10.1177/1028315306291945 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy, C., & Law, J. (Eds.). (1995). Landmark essays on writing centers. Routledge and Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  34. North, S. (1984). The idea of a writing center. College English, 46, 433–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nour, S. (2014). Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia (Merit Working Papers Series No. 2014–29).Google Scholar
  36. Onsman, A. (2011). It is better to light a candle than to ban the darkness: Government led academic development in Saudi Arabian universities. Higher Education, 62(4), 519–532. doi: 10.1007/s10734-010-9402-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pavan, A. (2015). Higher education in Saudi Arabia: Rooted in heritage and values, aspiring to progress. International Research in Higher Education, 1(1). Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.5430/irhe.v1n1p91
  38. Pennycook, A. (1989). The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 23(4), 589–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Phan, L., & Barnawi, O. Z. (2015). Where English, neoliberalism, desire and internationalization are alive and kicking: Higher education in Saudi Arabia today. Language and Education, 29(6), 545–565. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2015.1059436 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pratt, M. L. (1991). Arts of the contact zone. Profession, 91, 33–40. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25595469 Google Scholar
  41. Pullman, A. (2013). Destabilizing curriculum history: A genealogy of critical thinking. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 29(1), 173–187.Google Scholar
  42. Raforth, B. (2012). New writing center at King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia. News from the Writing Centers, 12–14. Retrieved from http://menawca.org/16.html
  43. Tago, A. H. (2015, March 15). Thousands of applicants for Colleges of Excellence | Arab News. Arab News. Retrieved from http://www.arabnews.com/saudi-arabia/news/718421
  44. Tamboukou, M. (2003). Writing feminist genealogies. Journal of Gender Studies, 12(1), 5–19. doi: 10.1080/0958923032000067781 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. UNESCO. (2016). Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from http://en.unesco.org/countries/saudi-arabia
  46. Vardhan, J. (2015). Internationalization and the changing paradigm of higher education in the GCC countries. SAGE Open, 5(2). doi: 10.1177/2158244015580377
  47. Waller, S. (2002). A brief history of university writing centers: Variety and diversity. New Foundations. Retrieved from http://www.newfoundations.com/History/WritingCtr.html
  48. World Bank. (2002). Constructing knowledge societies: New challenges for tertiary education. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Ali Khan Eusafzai
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Central AsiaNarynKyrgyz Republic

Personalised recommendations