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Mitochondria Damage and Kidney Disease

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 982)

Abstract

The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body’s metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell. Kidney diseases, either acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), are important clinical issues and global public health concerns with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapeutic strategies to cure or retard the progression of the diseases. Mitochondria-targeted therapeutics has become a major focus for modern research with the belief that maintaining mitochondria homeostasis can prevent kidney pathogenesis and disease progression. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular events that govern mitochondria functions in health and disease will potentially lead to improved therapeutics development.

Keywords

Oxidative stress Mitochondrial biogenesis Mitochondria bioenergetics Mitochondrial dynamics Mitophagy Acute kidney injury Chronic kidney disease Tissue injury and repair Mitochondria-targeted therapeutics 

Abbreviations

AKI

Acute kidney injury

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Ca2+

Calcium ion

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

coQ

Coenzyme Q

CsA

Cyclosporin A

cyt C

Cytochrome C

DN

Diabetic nephropathy

dNTPs

Deoxynucleotides triphosphates

DRP1

Dynamin related protein 1

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

ETC

Electron transport chain

FSGS

Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

GN

Glomerulonephritis

GSK

Glycogen synthase kinase

H+

Proton

I/R injury or IRI

Ischemic reperfusion injury

IMM

Inner mitochondrial membrane

KLF-6

Krüppel-like factor 6

MELAS

Myopathy encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes

Mfn1 and 2

Mitofusins 1 and 2

MPT

Mitochondrial permeability transition

mPTP

Mitochondrial permeability transition pore

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

MA-5

Mitochonic acid 5

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

nDNA

Nuclear DNA

NRF

Nuclear respiratory factors

OMM

Outer mitochondrial membrane

OPA1

Optical atrophy 1

OXPHOS

Oxidative phosphorylation

PGC-1α

PPARγ-coactivator -1α

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SIRT

Sirtuin

TLR

Toll-like receptor

ΔΨm

Mitochondrial inner membrane potential

Notes

Acknowledgments

PHL is supported, in part, by an OSU intramural Lockwood Fund.

Conflict of Interest

No competing interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Davis Heart and Lung Research InstituteThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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