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Mitochondria in Structural and Functional Cardiac Remodeling

  • Natalia Torrealba
  • Pablo Aranguiz
  • Camila Alonso
  • Beverly A. RothermelEmail author
  • Sergio LavanderoEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 982)

Abstract

The heart must function continuously as it is responsible for both supplying oxygen and nutrients throughout the entire body, as well as for the transport of waste products to excretory organs. When facing either a physiological or pathological increase in cardiac demand, the heart undergoes structural and functional remodeling as a means of adapting to increased workload. These adaptive responses can include changes in gene expression, protein composition, and structure of sub-cellular organelles involved in energy production and metabolism. Mitochondria are essential for cardiac function, as they supply the ATP necessary to support continuous cycles of contraction and relaxation. In addition, mitochondria carry out other important processes, including synthesis of essential cellular components, calcium buffering, and initiation of cell death signals. Not surprisingly, mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to several cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, ischemia/reperfusion and heart failure. The present chapter will discuss how changes in mitochondrial cristae structure, fusion/fission dynamics, fatty acid oxidation, ATP production, and the generation of reactive oxygen species might impact cardiac structure and function, particularly in the context of pathological hypertrophy and fibrotic response. In addition, the mechanistic role of mitochondria in autophagy and programmed cell death of cardiomyocytes will be addressed. Here we will also review strategies to improve mitochondrial function and discuss their cardioprotective potential.

Keywords

Mitochondria Heart Cardiac remodeling Sub-cellular remodeling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants from the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientıfica y Tecnologica (CONICYT), Chile (FONDAP 15130011 to S.L., Postdoctoral FONDECYT 3160549 to P.A.). N.T. is recipient of a PhD fellowship from CONICYT, Chile. National Institutes of Health U54 HD087351 and HL098051 to B.A.R.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences & Faculty of MedicineUniversity of ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Cardiology Division, Department of Internal MedicineUT Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of Texas, Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Texas, Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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