Advertisement

Cybercrime and Cyber Security in ASEAN

  • Lennon Y. C. ChangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Asian Criminology and Criminal Justice Research book series (SSACCJR)

Abstract

This chapter examines the trends in and challenges of cybercrime in the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) region. Although the ASEAN region is an emerging cybercrime market, there is limited research on cybercrime in ASEAN. What are the trends in and challenges of cybercrime in ASEAN? Is the current Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime appropriate for ASEAN? What are the challenges faced by ASEAN countries when collaborating internationally against cybercrime? This chapter aims to answer these questions and to consider whether the strategies developed in the global north are relevant to ASEAN. This chapter will provide an overview of cybercrime trends in ASEAN, assess current measures adopted by ASEAN countries in combatting cybercrime, and make policy recommendations to strengthen those measures.

Keywords

Cybercrime ASEAN Policy transfer Policing 

References

  1. ASEAN. (1967). The Asean Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) Bangkok, 8 August 1967. Retrieved 20 Nov 2016, <http://asean.org/the-asean-declaration-bangkok-declaration-bangkok-8-august-1967/>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  2. ASEAN. (1976). Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Indonesia, 24 February 1976. Retrieved 20 Nov 2016, <http://asean.org/treaty-amity-cooperation-southeast-asia-indonesia-24-february-1976/>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  3. ASEAN. (2004). Joint communique of the fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC), Bangkok. <http://asean.org/joint-communique-of-the-fourth-asean-ministerial-meeting-on-transnational-crime-ammtc-bangkok/>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  4. ASEAN. (2011). ASEAN ICT masterplan 2015. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.Google Scholar
  5. ASEAN. (2015a). ASEAN ICT masterplan 2015 completion report. Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat.Google Scholar
  6. ASEAN. (2015b). Plan of action to implement the joint declaration on ASEAN-China strategic partnership for peace and prosperity (2016–2020). <http://www.asean.org/storage/images/2015/November/27th-summit/ASEAN-China%20POA%20%202016-2020.pdf>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  7. ASEAN. (2016). ASEAN Telecommunications and IT Ministers Meeting (TELMIN). Retrieved 20 Nov 2016, <http://asean.org/asean-economic-community/asean-telecommunications-and-it-ministers-meeting-telmin/>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  8. ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). (2006). ASEAN Regional Forum statement on cooperation in fighting cyber attack and terrorist misuse of cyberspace. Retrieved 20 Nov 2016, <http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/asean/conference/arf/state0607-3.html>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  9. Ashok, I. (2016, August 5). China-based hackers suspected of targeting Philippines DOJ over South China Sea dispute. International Business Times, <http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/china-based-hackers-suspected-targeting-philippines-doj-over-south-china-sea-dispute-1574496>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  10. Aung, T. (2016) High Court to hear ATM fraud allegations. Myanmar Times. Retrieved 10 Oct 2016, <http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/yangon/19104-high-court-to-hear-atm-fraud-allegations.html>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  11. BBC (2010). Burma hit by massive net attack ahead of election. <http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-11693214>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  12. Broadhurst, R., & Chang, L. (2012). Cybercrime in Asia: Trend and challenges. In R. Broadhurst & P. Grabosky (Eds.), Cyber-crime: The challenge in Asia (pp. 269–302). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Chang, L. (2012). Cybecrime in the greater China region: Regulatory responses and crime prevention across the Taiwan Strait. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chung, L. (2016, August 6). How Taiwanese police cracked NT$83 million ATM heist. South China Morning Post, <http://www.scmp.com/news/china/money-wealth/article/1999019/how-taiwanese-police-cracked-nt83-million-atm-heist>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  15. Coe, J (2016, January 5). The cyber wars. Frontier. Retrieved 15 Oct 2016, <http://frontiermyanmar.net/en/features/the-cyber-wars>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  16. Constantin, L. (2016, August 30). Sophisticated malware possibly tied to recent ATM heists in Thailand. ComputerWorld, <http://www.computerworld.com.my/resource/security/sophisticated-malware-possibly-tied-to-recent-atm-heists-in-thailand/>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  17. Council of Europe. (2016). Convention on cybercrime: Explanatory report. Retrieved 10 Nov 2016, <http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Reports/Html/185.htm>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  18. Csonka, P. (2000). The draft Council of Europe Convention on cybercrime: A response to the challenge of crime in the age of the internet? Computer Law & Security Report, 16, 329–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, B. (2016, August 13). Hacking attack at Vietnam airports: Another chapter in South China Sea dispute. Forbes, <http://www.forbes.com/sites/davisbrett/2016/08/13/hacking-attack-at-vietnam-airports-another-chapter-in-south-china-sea-dispute/#40679eb64248>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  20. Ericsson. (2015). Ericsson mobility report: On the pulse of the networked society. Retrieved 9 Sept 2016, <http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/2015/mobility-report/ericsson-mobility-report-nov-2015.pdf>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  21. Evers, H.-D., & Gerke, S. (2013). Local knowledge and the digital divide: Focus on Southeast Asia. Bandar Seri Begawan: Institute of Asian Studies, University Brunei Darussalam.Google Scholar
  22. Fireeye. (2015). Southeast Asia: An Evolving Cyber Threat Landscape. Retrieved 10 Oct 2016, https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeyewww/ current-threats/pdfs/rpt-southeast-asia-threat-landscape.pdf. Accessed Apr 2017.
  23. F-Secure. (2016). Nanhaishu: RATing the South China Sea. Retrieved 10 Oct 2016, <https://www.f-secure.com/documents/996508/1030745/nanhaishu_whitepaper.pdf>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  24. Hammond, C., & Trautwein, C. (2016, March 25). Viettel picked for fourth telecoms tie-up with military partner. Myanmar Times, <http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/business/technology/19662-viettel-nears-contract-for-fourth-telecoms-operator.html>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  25. Heinl, C. (2014). Regional cybersecurity: Moving toward a resilient ASEAN cyber security regime. Asia Policy, 18, 131–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. IBM. (2009). IBM internet security systems X- force 2009 mid-year trend and risk report. Somers: IBM Corporate.Google Scholar
  27. Kolochenko, I. (2016). Cybercrime The Price of Inequality. Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2016/12/19/cybercrimethe-price-of-inequality/#32c7e0c67d01. Accessed Apr 2017.
  28. Leesa-Nguansuk, S. (2013, July 5). Internet users ‘will double’ this year. Bangkok Post. <http://www.bangkokpost.com/tech/local-news/358404/internet-users-will-double-this-year. Accessed Sept 2016.
  29. Long, K. (2016). Govt. firms dismiss hacking report. MyanmarTimes, <http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/19200-govt-firms-dismiss-hacking-report.html>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  30. Microsoft. (2007). Asia Pacific Legislative Analysis: Current and pending online safety and cybercrime laws. A study by Microsoft. <http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/cyb/cybersecurity/docs/microsoft_asia_pacific_ legislative_analysis.pdf>. Access Nov 2016.
  31. Microsoft. (2016a). Malware Infection Index 2016 highlights key threats undermining cybersecurity in Asia Pacific: Microsoft.Google Scholar
  32. Microsoft (2016b). Microsoft security intelligence report (Vol. 20). Seattle: Microsoft.Google Scholar
  33. Microsoft (2016c). Microsoft security intelligence report (Vol. 20). Regional threat assessment. Seattle: Microsoft.Google Scholar
  34. Microsoft. (2016d). Microsoft security intelligence report (Vol. 20): PLATINUM: Targeted attacks in South and Southeast Asia. Seattle: Microsoft.Google Scholar
  35. Miniwatts Marketing Group. (2016). Internet World Stats. <http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  36. Morgan, S. (2016, January 17). Cyber crime costs projected to reach $2 trillion by 2019. Forbes, <http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevemorgan/2016/01/17/cyber-crime-costs-projected-to-reach-2-trillion-by-2019/#3b3683cf3bb0>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  37. Motlagh, J. (2014, September 30). When a SIM card goes from $2,000 to $1.50. Bloomberg. <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-09-29/myanmar-opens-its-mobile-phone-market-cuing-carrier-frenzy>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  38. Nasu, H., & Trezise, H. (2015). Cyber security in the Asia-Pacific. In N. Tsagourias & R. Buchan (Eds.), Research handbook on international law and cyberspace (pp. 446–464). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. OECD. (2001). Understanding the digital divide. Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Toole, B. (2013). Email hacking exposes cybercrime in Myanmar. MyanmarTimes, http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/nationalnews/4168-email-hacking-exposes-cybercrime-in-myanmar.html. Accessed Apr 2017.
  41. Portnoy, M., & Goodman, S. (2009). Global initiatives to secure cyberspace: An emerging landscape. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prakash, G. (2014, October 2). Banks knew ATMs were open to attacks, source claims. Malaymail Online, <http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/banks-knew-atms-were-open-to-attacks-source-claims>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  43. Rees, N. (2010). EU and ASEAN: Issues of regional security. International Politics, 47(3), 402–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. RT. (2013, November 5). Indonesian ‘Anonymous’ hackers deface scores of Australian websites in revenge over spying. RT News, <https://www.rt.com/news/anonymous-indonesia-australia-hack-167/>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  45. Santora, M. (2013, May 9). In hours, thieves took $45 Million in A.T.M. scheme. New York Times, <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/10/nyregion/eight-charged-in-45-million-global-cyber-bank-thefts.html>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  46. Symantec. (2009). Symantec APJ internet security threat report XIII: Trend for 2008. Cupertino, CA: Symantec Corporation.Google Scholar
  47. Trautwein, C. (2015, March 25). Myanmar named fourth-fastest-growing mobile market in the world by Ericsson. Myanmar Times, <http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/business/technology/17727-myanmar-named-fourth-fastest-growing-mobile-market-in-the-world-by-ericsson.html>. Accessed Nov 2016.
  48. Trend Micro. (2009). Trend micro 2008 annual threat roundup and 2009 forecast. Cupertino: Trend Micro Inc.Google Scholar
  49. UNCATD. (2013). Review of e-commerce legislation harmonization in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (UNCTAD/DTL/STICT/2013/1). NY: Nunited Nations.Google Scholar
  50. Unleash Research Labs. (2016). Unleashed: Unveiling cyberwar in Myanmar. <http://unleashed.blinkhackergroup.org/op-its-time/3/>. Accessed Nov 2016.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations