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Plant Breeding for Improving Nutrient Uptake and Utilization Efficiency

  • Antonio FerranteEmail author
  • Fabio Francesco Nocito
  • Silvia Morgutti
  • Gian Attilio Sacchi
Part of the Advances in Olericulture book series (ADOL)

Abstract

Mineral nutrients are essential for plants where they play specific metabolic functions. Macronutrients are required in higher quantities, while micronutrients in smaller amounts. Deprivation or paucity of any macro- or microelement has negative effects on plant development and yield, potentially impairing the plant capability of reaching and completing the reproductive phase. Therefore, the evolution of mechanisms able to maintain the tissue mineral nutrient homeostasis in response to changes in their availability in the growth substrate is a key factor under both the evolutionary (biological) and agricultural (yield performance) points of view.

The supply/availability/plant intake and assimilation of mineral nutrients are often limited by extrinsic (i.e., environmental) and intrinsic (developmental, biochemical, physiological), plant-related factors. Since all of the latter are under genetic control, use of efficient plant breeding procedures for improving the complex trait of plant nutrient utilization efficiency is of paramount importance. This issue is made more compelling since intensive agriculture, necessary to satisfy the increasing food demand on Earth’s scale, requires, in order to reintroduce into the soil the mineral nutrients removed with plant harvest, the use of large amounts of fertilizers posing serious soil, air and water pollution concerns.

Nitrogen, with phosphorus and potassium, is the macronutrient that more deeply affects crop production.

The chapter presents a survey of the main molecular aspects determining the biochemical and physiological bottlenecks that limit Nutrient/Nitrogen Use Efficiency (Nu/NUE) in crop plants, with particular focus on leafy vegetables. The most innovative molecular approaches applicable to overcome these restraints, based upon the use of novel genome- and transcriptome-based technologies, are reviewed.

Keywords

Fertilizers Mineral nutrition Molecular markers Nitrogen Next generation sequencing Quantitative trait loci 

Notes

Glossary

2-OG

2-Oxo-Glutarate

AAP5

Amino Acid Permease 5

AMT

Ammonium Transporter

AR

Apparent Recovery

AS

Asparagine Syntethase

ASN

AsparagineSynthetase-encoding gene family

ATF

AminoacidTransportFamily gene family

AUE

Agronomic nutrient Use Efficiency

CaMV 35S

Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S

cHATS

constitutive HATS elements

CIPK23

CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase 23

CLC

ChLorideTransporters gene family

CPSase

Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase

CRISPR/Cas9

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/CRISPR-associated9

DTC

Dicarboxylate/Tricarboxylate Carrier

EMS

Ethyl Methane Sulfonate

FAD

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

Fd

Ferredoxin

G3P

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate

GDH

Glutamate Dehydrogenase

GMO

Genetically Modified Organism

GOGAT

Glutamine-2-OxoGlutarate Amino Transferase

GS

Glutamine Syntethase

GSH

Glutathione, reduced

GSSG

Glutathione disulphide

GWAS

Genome-Wide Association Studies

HATS

High-Affinity Transport System

IDH

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase

iHATS

inducible HATS elements

IR

Infrared

KM

Michaelis-Menten’s constant

LATS

Low-Affinity Transport System

LHT1

Lysine Histidine Transporter 1

MAS

Marker-Assisted Selection

MIPs

Major Intrinsic Membrane Proteins

NAD

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, oxidized

NADH

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, reduced

NADP

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate

NAR2

NitrateAssimilationRelated gene

NAXT1

Nitrate Excretion Transporter1

NGS

Next Generation Sequencing

NH4+

Ammonium

NIA gene

nitrate reductase gene

NIL

Near-Isogenic Line

NiR

Nitrite Reductase

NO2

Nitrite

NO3

Nitrate

NPF

Nitrate Transporter 1/Peptide Transporter gene family

NR

Nitrate Reductase

NRE

Nitrogen Remobilization Efficiency

NRT

Nitrate Transporter

NUE

Nitrogen Use Efficiency

NuNUE

Nutrient/Nitrogen Use Efficiency

NuUE

Nutrient Use Efficiency

OAA

OxaloAcetic Acid

PE

Physiological Efficiency

PEPC

PhosphoenolPyruvate Carboxylase

PGA

Phosphoglyceric Acid

PM

Plasma Membrane

PPase

PyroPhosphatase

PTR

Peptide Transporter

QTL

Quantitative Trait Loci

RE

Removal Efficiency

RIL

Recombinant Inbred Line

RSA

Root System Architecture

Rubisco

Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase

SCD

Steep, Cheap, and Deep

SNP

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

TCA

Tri-Carboxylic Acids

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Ferrante
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fabio Francesco Nocito
    • 1
  • Silvia Morgutti
    • 1
  • Gian Attilio Sacchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – Production, Landscape, AgroenergyUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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