Advertisement

Identification of Rock Fall Prone Areas on the Steep Slopes Above the Town of Omiš, Croatia Open image in new window

  • Marin SečanjEmail author
  • Snježana Mihalić Arbanas
  • Branko Kordić
  • Martin Krkač
  • Sanja Bernat Gazibara
Conference paper

Abstract

The aim of this paper was identification of rock fall prone areas above the historical town of Omiš, located at the Adriatic coast in Croatia. Unstable areas were identified by kinematic analysis performed based on relative orientations of discontinuities and slope face. Input data was extracted from the surface model created from the high-resolution point cloud. The town of Omiš is threatened by rock falls, because of its specific location just at the toe of Mt. Omiška Dinara. Rock fall risk is even higher due to rich cultural and historical heritage of the town. Collection of spatial data was performed by Time of Flight and phase-shift terrestrial laser scanners in order to derivate high resolution point cloud necessary for derivation of surface model. Split-FX software was used to extract discontinuity surfaces were semi-automatically from the point cloud data. Spatial kinematic analysis was performed for each triangle of TIN surface model of the investigated slopes to identify locations of possible instability mechanism. From the results of the spatial kinematic analysis, the most critical parts of the slope have identified for planar and wedge failure and flexural and block toppling. Verification of identified rock fall areas was performed by visual inspection of hazardous blocks at the surface model. Identified rock fall prone areas, unstable blocks and probable instability mechanisms on the steep slopes above the town Omiš, present the input data for risk reduction by efficient design of countermeasures.

Keywords

Rock fall Point cloud Split-FX Discontinuity extraction Kinematic analysis Omiš (Croatia) 

References

  1. Arbanas Ž, Grošić M, Udovič D, Mihalić S (2012) Rockfall hazard analyses and rockfall protection along the Adriatic coast of Croatia. J Civ Eng Arch David Publishing Company 6(3):344–355Google Scholar
  2. Cacciari PP, Futai MM (2016) Mapping and characterization of rock discontinuities in a tunnel using 3D terrestrial laser scanning. Bull Eng Geol Env 75:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Casagli N, Pini G (1993) Analisi cinematica della stabilità in versanti naturali e fronti di scavo in roccia. In: Proceedings 3° Convegno Nazionale dei Giovani Ricercatori in Geologia Applicata, Potenza (in Italian)Google Scholar
  4. Fanti R, Gigli G, Lombardi L, Tapete D, Canuti P (2013) Terrestrial laser scanning for rockfall stability analysis in the cultural heritage site of Pitigliano (Italy). Landslides. 10:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gigli G, Casagli N (2011) Semi-automatic extraction of rock mass structural data from high resolution LIDAR point clouds. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 48(2):187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gigli G, Frodella W, Mugnai F, Tapete D, Cigna F, Fanti R, Intrieri E, Lombardi L (2012) Instability mechanisms affecting cultural heritage sites in the Maltese Archipelago. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:1883–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goodman RE, Bray JW (1976) Toppling of rock slopes. In: Proceedings of special conference on rock engineering for foundations and slopes, vol 2. ASCE, Boulder, Colorado, pp 201–234Google Scholar
  8. Günther A, Wienhofer J, Konietzky H (2012) Automated mapping of rock slope geometry, kinematics and stability with RSS-GIS. Nat Hazards 61:29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Haala N, Cramer M, Weimer F, Trittler M (2011) Performance test on UAV-based photogrammetric data collection. In: Proceedings of the international conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics (UAV-g), 14–16 Sept 2011, vol XXXVIII-1/C22Google Scholar
  10. Herak M, Allegretti I, Herak D, Ivančić I, Kuk V, Marić K, Markušić S, Sović I (2011) Karta potresnih područja Republike Hrvatske M 1:800.000, Geofizički zavod PMF-a, Zagreb (in Croatian)Google Scholar
  11. Hoek E, Bray JW (1981) Rock slope engineering. (Revised 3rd edn). Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, pp 257–250Google Scholar
  12. Hudson JA, Harrison JP (1997) Engineering rock mechanics: an introduction to the principles and applications. In: Pergamon (ed). OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaboyedoff M, Metzger R, Oppikofer T, Couture R, Derron MH, Locat J, Turmel D (2007) New insight techniques to analyze rock-slope relief using DEM and 3D-imaging cloud points: COLTOP-3D software. In: Proceedings of 1st Canada—U.S. rock mechanics symposium, Vancouver, 27–31 May 2007, pp 61–68Google Scholar
  14. Lato MJ, Vöge M (2012) Automated mapping of rock discontinuities in 3D lidar and photogrammetry models. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 54:150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marinčić S, Korolija B, Majcen Ž (1976) Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000. List Omiš K33–32.– Institut za geološka istraživanja Zagreb (1968–1969), Savezni geol. zavod, Beograd (in Croatian)Google Scholar
  16. Marinčić S, Korolija B, Mamužić B, Magaš N, Majcen Ž, Brkić M, Benček Đ (1977) Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000. Tumač za list Omiš K33–32.– Institut za geološka istraživanja Zagreb (1969), Savezni geol. zavod, Beograd, pp. 21–35 (in Croatian)Google Scholar
  17. Nikolić M (2015) Rock mechanics, failure phenomena with pre-existing cracks and internal fluid flow through cracks. Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Geodesy, University of Split, Split, CroatiaGoogle Scholar
  18. Sdao F, Lioi DS, Pascale S, Caniani D, Mancini IM (2013) Landslide susceptibility assessment by using a neuro-fuzzy model: a case study in the Rupestrian heritage rich area of Matera. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 13:397–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Slob S, Hack R, Van Knapen B, Turner K, Kemeny J (2005) A method for automated discontinuity analysis of rock slopes with 3D laser scanning. Transport Res Rec 1913:187–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Split Engineering LCC (2007) Split-FX V 2.4, Tucson, AZGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marin Sečanj
    • 1
    Email author
  • Snježana Mihalić Arbanas
    • 1
  • Branko Kordić
    • 2
  • Martin Krkač
    • 1
  • Sanja Bernat Gazibara
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum EngineeringUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Faculty of GeodesyUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations