FaceMaker—A Procedural Face Generator to Foster Character Design Research

Chapter

Abstract

Understanding the effect of facial features on human’s perception and emotion is widely studied in different disciplines. In video games, this is especially important to improve the design of virtual characters and to understand their creation process. Virtual characters are widely used in games, virtual therapies, movie productions, and as avatars in e-commerce or in e-education. Studying the design of virtual characters is challenging as it requires to have tools at hand that enables the creation of virtual characters. Therefore, we developed a system that enables researchers to study the design process of virtual faces as well as the perception of such faces. We developed a 3D model of the Caucasian average face and implemented design parameters that can be manipulated to change the face appearance. We integrate the face creation system into a web application, which allows us to conduct studies in the large. The application has been validated through a cluster analysis of procedurally generated faces from 569 participants which created 1730 faces.

References

  1. Apostolakis, K. C., & Daras, P. (2013). RAAT - The reverie avatar authoring tool. In 2013 18th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) (pp. 1–6). IEEE. 10.1109/ICDSP.2013.6622788
  2. Bessière, K., Seay, A. F., & Kiesler, S. (2007). The Ideal Elf: Identity Exploration in World of Warcraft. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10(4), 530–535. 10.1089/cpb.2007.9994
  3. Chung, D., DeBuys, B., & Nam, C. (2007). Influence of Avatar Creation on Attitude, Empathy, Presence, and Para-Social Interaction. Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Design and Usability, 4550, 711–720. 10.1007/978-3-540-73105-4
  4. Dion, K., Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24(3), 285–290. 10.1037/h0033731
  5. Ducheneaut, N., Yee, N., Wadley, G., Alto, P., & Alto, P. (2009). Body and Mind : A Study of Avatar Personalization in Three Virtual Worlds, 1151–1160.Google Scholar
  6. Eagly, A. H., Ashmore, R. D., Makhijani, M. G., & Longo, L. C. (1991). What is beautiful is good, but … A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 109–128. 10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.109
  7. Grammer, K., & Thornhill, R. (1994). Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108(3), 233–242. 10.1037/0735-7036.108.3.233
  8. Heeter, C., Egidio, R., Mishra, P., Winn, B., & Winn, J. (2008). Alien Games: Do Girls Prefer Games Designed by Girls? Games and Culture, 4(1), 74–100. 10.1177/1555412008325481
  9. Langlois, J. H., Ritter, J. M., Roggman, L. a., & Vaughn, L. S. (1991). Facial diversity and infant preferences for attractive faces. Developmental Psychology, 27(1), 79–84. 10.1037/0012-1649.27.1.79
  10. Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., & Musselman, L. (1994). What is average and what is not average about attractive faces? Psychological Science, 5(4), 8.Google Scholar
  11. Mori, M., MacDorman, K., & Kageki, N. (2012). The Uncanny Valley [From the Field]. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 19(2), 98–100. 10.1109/MRA.2012.2192811
  12. Prokopakis, E. P., Vlastos, I. M., Picavet, V., Nolst, G., Thomas, R., Cingi, C., & Hellings, P. W. (2013). The golden ratio in facial symmetry. Rhinology, 51(4), 18–21. 10.4193/Rhino12.111
  13. Rice, M., Koh, R., Lui, Q., He, Q., Wan, M., Yeo, V., … Tan, W. P. (2013). Comparing avatar game representation preferences across three age groups. In CHI ’13 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on - CHI EA ’13 (p. 1161). inproceedings, New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. 10.1145/2468356.2468564
  14. Rikowski, A., & Grammer, K. (1999). Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness. Proceedings. Biological Sciences/ The Royal Society, 266(November 1998), 869–874. 10.1098/rspb.1999.0717
  15. Rujirakul, K., So-In, C., & Arnonkijpanich, B. (2014). PEM-PCA: A parallel expectation-maximization PCA face recognition architecture. The Scientific World Journal, 2014. 10.1155/2014/468176
  16. Schwind, V. (2015). Historical, Cultural, and Aesthetic Aspects of the Uncanny Valley. In Collective Agency and Cooperation in Natural and Artificial Systems (pp. 81–107). Cham: Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978-3-319-15515-9_5
  17. Schwind, V., Wolf, K., Henze, N., & Korn, O. (2015). Determining the Characteristics of Preferred Virtual Faces Using an Avatar Generator. In Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play - CHI PLAY ’15 (pp. 221–230). New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. 10.1145/2793107.2793116
  18. Tiddeman, B., Burt, M., & Perrett, D. (2001). Prototyping and transforming facial textures for perception research. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(October), 42–50. 10.1109/38.946630

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.HAW HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations