Consequences of Educator Stress on Turnover: The Case of Charter Schools
This chapter provides a brief review of the literature on educator stress and attrition, while focusing primarily on differences in attrition rates among Texas teachers who worked at a charter school between 1998 and 2009 compared to Traditional Public School (TPS) teachers. Survival analyses revealed that teachers who worked their entire career at a charter school were at the highest risk of attrition, whereas those who worked at TPS at any point in their career were at a much lower risk. This finding was relatively consistent across other teacher and school characteristic variables. In fact, this conclusion was reached across all the predictor variables, with the odds of leaving the profession typically being more than twice that of TPS. While research has documented various predictors of teacher attrition, our study extends the research specifically on charter teachers. Given the current political climate with continued support for charter schools, it is important to investigate this population of teachers. Recommendations for further research on stress and attrition as well implications for reducing teacher stress as a means to minimize attrition, are discussed.
KeywordsTeacher attrition Teacher migration (mover) Charter schools Traditional public schools Educator stress
- Adams, G. J. (1996). Using a Cox regression model to examine voluntary teacher turnover. Journal of Experimental Education, 64(2), 267–285. doi: 10.1080/00220973.1996.9943807.
- Allison, P. D. (2010). Survival analysis using SAS: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc..Google Scholar
- Ausbrooks, C. Y. B., Barrett, E. J., & Daniel, T. (2005). Texas charter school legislation and the evolution of open-enrollment charter schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(21). doi: 10.14507/epaa.v13n21.2005.
- Bifulco, R., & Ladd, H. (2005). Results from the Tar Heel state: Older students did better when in regular public schools. Education Next, 5, 60–66.Google Scholar
- Boe, E. E., Bobbitt, S., Cook, L., Whitener, S., & Weber, A. (1997). Why didst thou go? Predictors of retention, transfer, and attrition of special and general education teachers from a national perspective. Journal of Special Education, 30, 390–411. doi: 10.1177/002246699703000403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bomotti, S., Ginsberg, R., & Cobb, B. (1999). Teachers in charter schools and traditional schools: A comparative study. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 17(22).Google Scholar
- Booker, K., Sass, T. R., & Gill, B. (2010). The unknown world of charter high schools. Education Next, 10(2), 70–75.Google Scholar
- Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2009). Who leaves? Teacher attrition and student achievement (Working Paper). Albany, NY: Teacher Policy Research Center, SUNY Albany. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/1001270_teacher_attrition.pdf
- Cannata, M. (2007). Teacher community in elementary charter schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 15(11). doi: 10.14507/epaa.v15n11.2007.
- Cannata, M. (2010) School choice, school organization, and teacher turnover. National Center on School Choice. Retrieved from http://www.vanderbilt.edu/schoolchoice/documents/ucea_choice_organization_turnover.pdf
- Claeys, L. (2011). Teacher motivation to teach and remain teaching culturally and linguistically diverse students. Doctoral Dissertation from the University of Texas at San Antonio. Retrieved from ProQuest’s UMI Dissertation Publishing, 208; 340471 xGoogle Scholar
- Fabricant, M., & Fine, M. (2012). Charter schools and the corporate makeover of public education: What’s at stake? New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- Finch, H., Lapsley, D. K., & Baker-Boudissa, M. (2009). A survival analysis of student mobility and retention in Indiana charter schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 17(18). Retrieved from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v17n18/
- Fine, M. (2010). Memo from Lois Lane: From the cutting room floor. Available from: http://www.notwaitingforsuperman.org/Articles/20101101-FineLoisLaneMemo
- Frankenberg, E., Siegel-Hawley, G., & Wang, J. (2011). Choice without equity: Charter school segregation. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 19(1). doi: 10.14507/epaa.v19n1.2011
- Goldhaber, D., Gross, B., & Player, D. (2007). Are public schools really losing their best? Assessing the career transitions of teachers and their implications for the quality of the teacher workforce. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.caldercenter.org/PDF/1001115_Public_Schools.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gross, B., & DeArmond, M. (2010). Parallel patterns: Teacher attrition in charter schools vs. public schools. National Charter School Research Project Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. Retrieved from http://www.crpe.org/cs/crpe/download/csr_files/pub_ics_Attrition_Sep10
- Guerra, N., Flores, B. B., & Claeys, L. (2009). Case study of an induction year teacher’s problem-solving using the LIBRE model activity. New Horizons in Education: Journal in Education, 57(1), 42–57.Google Scholar
- Krop, C., & Zimmer, R. (2005). Charter school type matters when examining funding and facilities: Evidence from California. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(50). doi: 10.14507/epaa.v13n50.2005.
- López, F., & Olsen, A. (2013). Report to the network for public education: Charter and traditional public school achievement on 4th and 8th grade 2011 reading and mathematics. NAEP.Google Scholar
- Maloney, C., Sheehan, D., Rainey, K. (2011, July). Evaluation of New Texas charter schools: Final report executive summary. Texas Center for Educational Research. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/WorkArea/linkit.aspx?LinkIdentifier=id&ItemID=2147502644&libID=2147502638
- Margolis, J., & Nagel, L. (2006). Education reform and the role of administrators in mediating teacher stress. Teacher Education Quarterly, 33(4), 143–159.Google Scholar
- Miron, G. & Applegate, B. (2007). Teacher attrition in charter schools. The Great Lakes Center for Education Research & Practice. Available from http://greatlakescenter.org/docs/Research/Miron_Attrition
- Ndoy, A., Imig, S.R., & Parker, M.A. (2010). Empowerment, leadership, and teachers’ intentions to stay in or leave the profession or their schools in North Carolina charter schools. Journal of School Choice: International Research and Reform, (4)2, 174–190, doi: 10.1080/15582159.2010.483920.
- Ni, Y. (2007). Are charter schools more racially segregated than traditional public schools? The Education Policy Center, Policy Report, 30, 1–7.Google Scholar
- Quartz, K. H., Thomas, A., Anderson, L., Masyn, K., Lyons, K. B., & Olsen, B. (2008). Careers in motion: A longitudinal retention study of role changing among early-career urban educators. Teachers College Record, 110(1), 218–250.Google Scholar
- Renzulli, L. A., Parrott, H. M., & Beattie, I. R. (2011). Racial mistmatch and school type: Teacher satisfaction and retention in charter and traditional public schools. Sociology of Education., 84(23). doi: 10.1177/0038040710392720.
- Sass, D. A., Flores, B. B., Claeys, L., & Pérez, B. (2012). Identifying personal and contextual factors that contribute to attrition rates for Texas public school teachers. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 20(15). doi: 10.14507/epaa.v20n15.2012.
- Seidman, S. A., & Zager, J. (1986). The Teacher Burnout Scale. Educational Research Quarterly, 11(1), 1986–1987. 26-33.Google Scholar
- Texas Education Agency (2014). Charter schools. Retrieved June 30, 2014, from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/Charters.aspx
- Vasquez Heilig, J. (2015). Policy brief: Should Louisiana and the recovery school district receive accolades for being last and nearly last? The Network for Public Education. Retrieved from http://networkforpubliceducation.org/2015/08/policy_brief_louisiana/.
- Vasquez Heilig, J., Williams, A., & Jez, S. (2010). Inputs and student achievement: An analysis of Latina/o-serving urban elementary schools. Association of Mexican American Educators Journal, 10(1), 48–58.Google Scholar
- Zimmer, R, Gill, B., Booker, K. Lavertu, S., Sass, T. R., & Witte, J. (2009). Charter schools in 8 states: Effect on achievement, attainment, integration, and competition. Rand Education. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2009/RAND_MG869