Consequences of Job Stress for the Mental Health of Teachers

  • Irvin Sam SchonfeldEmail author
  • Renzo Bianchi
  • Peter Luehring-Jones
Part of the Aligning Perspectives on Health, Safety and Well-Being book series (AHSW)


This chapter examines research on the relationship between job stressors and mental health (depressive symptoms, burnout, and mental disorders such as depression) in teachers. Teachers are exposed daily to job stressors (e.g., student disruptiveness) that have been linked to adverse mental health effects. Epidemiologic research indicates that when compared to members of other groups, teachers experience higher rates of mental disorder, although some studies question that conclusion. Large-scale studies indicate when compared to members of other occupational groups, teachers are at higher risk for exposure to workplace violence, with its adverse mental health consequences. Longitudinal research has linked teaching-related stressors to depressive and psychosomatic symptoms, alcohol consumption, and burnout. Research on the efficacy of workplace coping has been weak. Recent research suggests that burnout may be better conceptualized as a depressive syndrome than a separate entity.


Teachers Stress Depression Burnout Violence Coping 


  1. Agerbo, E., Gunnell, D., Bonde, J. P., Mortensen, P. B., & Nordentoft, M. (2007). Suicide and occupation: the impact of socioeconomic, demographic and psychiatric differences. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1131–1140. doi: 10.1017/S0033291707000487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahola, K., Hakanen, J., Perhoniemi, R., & Mutanen, P. (2014). Relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms: A study using the person-centred approach. Burnout Research, 1, 29–37. doi: 10.1016/j.burn.2014.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alarcon, G., Eschleman, K. J., & Bowling, N. A. (2009). Relationships between personality variables and burnout: A meta-analysis. Work and Stress, 23, 244–263. doi: 10.1080/02678370903282600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen, K., Hawgood, J., Klieve, H., Kõlves, K., & De Leo, D. (2010). Suicide in selected occupations in Queensland: evidence from the State suicide register. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 243–249. doi: 10.3109/00048670903487142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bell, S., Russ, T. C., Kivimäki, M., Stamatakis, E., & Batty, G. D. (2015). Dose-response association between psychological distress and risk of completed suicide in the general population. JAMA Psychiatry, 72, 1254–1256. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bianchi, R., Boffy, C., Hingray, C., Truchot, D., & Laurent, E. (2013). Comparative symptomatology of burnout and depression. Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 782–787. doi: 10.1177/1359105313481079.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianchi, R., & Laurent, E. (2015). Emotional information processing in depression and burnout: An eye-tracking study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 265, 27–34. doi: 10.1007/s00406-014-0549-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianchi, R., & Schonfeld, I. S. (2016). Burnout is associated with a depressive cognitive style. Personality and Individual Differences, 100, 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.008
  9. Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2014a). Is burnout a depressive disorder? A re-examination with special focus on atypical depression. International Journal of Stress Management, 21, 307–324. doi: 10.1037/a0037906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2015a). Burnout-depression overlap: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 36, 28–41. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2015b). Is it time to consider the “burnout syndrome” a distinct illness? Frontiers in Public Health, 3, 158. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2015.00158.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2015c). Is burnout separable from depression in cluster analysis? A longitudinal study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 1005–1011. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0996-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianchi, R., Truchot, D., Laurent, E., Brisson, R., & Schonfeld, I. S. (2014b). Is burnout solely job-related? A critical comment. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 357–361. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blase, J. J. (1986). A qualitative analysis of sources of teacher stress: Consequences for performance. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 13–40. doi: 10.2307/1163040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloch, A. M. (1978). Combat neurosis in inner-city schools. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 1189–1192. doi: 10.1176/ajp.135.10.1189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2008). Who leaves? Teacher attrition and student achievement (NBER Working Paper No. 14022). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. doi: 10.3386/w14022
  17. Boyd, D., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2005). Explaining the short careers of high-achieving teachers in schools with low-performing students. American Economic Review, 95, 166–171. doi: 10.1257/000282805774669628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brenner, S., Sörbom, D., & Wallius, E. (1985). The stress chain: A longitudinal confirmatory study of teacher stress, coping and social support. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58, 1–13. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1985.tb00175.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunsting, N. C., Sreckovic, M. A., & Lane, K. L. (2014). Special education teacher burnout: A synthesis of research from 1979 to 2013. Education and Treatment of Children, 37, 681–711. doi: 10.1353/etc.2014.0032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2015). Occupational employment statistics. May 2014 National occupational employment and wage estimates. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Accessed July 2015.Google Scholar
  21. Burke, R. J., Greenglass, E. R., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Predicting teacher burnout over time: Effects of work stress, social support, and self-doubts on burnout and its consequences. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 9, 261–275. doi: 10.1080/10615809608249406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carmona, C., Buunk, A. P., Peiró, J. M., Rodríguez, I., & Bravo, M. J. (2006). Do social comparison and coping styles play a role in the development of burnout? Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 85–99. doi: 10.1348/096317905X40808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carver, C. S., & Connor-Smith, J. (2010). Personality and coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 679–704. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang, M.-L. (2009). An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 193–218. doi: 10.1007/s10648-009-9106-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole, M. S., Walter, F., Bedeian, A. G., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2012). Job burnout and employee engagement: A meta-analytic examination of construct proliferation. Journal of Management, 38, 1550–1581. doi: 10.1177/0149206311415252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dollard, M. F., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 579–599. doi: 10.1348/096317909X470690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., Huntington, J. L., Lawson, K. L., Novotny, P. J., Sloan, J. A., et al. (2006). Personal life events and medical student burnout: A multicenter study. Academic Medicine, 81, 374–384. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200604000-00010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eaton, W. W., Anthony, J. C., Mandel, W., & Garrison, R. (1990). Occupations and the prevalence of major depressive disorder. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 32, 1079–1087. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199011000-00006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fan, Z. J., Bonauto, D. K., Foley, M. P., Anderson, N. J., Yragui, N. L., & Silverstein, B. A. (2012). Occupation and the prevalence of current depression and frequent mental distress, WA BRFSS 2006 and 2008. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 55, 893–903. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Feng, L. (2010). Hire today, gone tomorrow: New teacher classroom assignments and teacher mobility. Education Finance and Policy, 5(3), 278–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Finlay-Jones, R. (1986). Factors in the teaching environment associated with severe psychological distress among school teachers. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 20, 304–313. doi: 10.3109/00048678609158878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burnout. Journal of Social Issues, 30, 159–165. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frijters, P., Shields, M.A., & Price, S.W. (2004). To teach or not to teach? Panel data evidence on the quitting decision. IZA Discussion Paper No. 1164. Bonn, Germany.Google Scholar
  34. Ginsberg, R., Schwartz, H., Olson, G., & Bennett, A. (1987). Working conditions in urban schools. The Urban Review, 19, 3–23. doi: 10.1007/bf01108421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gitlin, M. J. (2009). Pharmacotherapy and other somatic treatments for depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 554–585). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  36. Goddard, R., O’Brien, P., & Goddard, M. (2006). Work environment predictors of beginning teacher burnout. British Educational Research Journal, 32, 857–874. doi: 10.1080/01411920600989511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goldberg, D.P. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire, Maudsley Monograph No. 21. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. González-Morales, M. G., Rodríguez, I., & Peiró, J. M. (2010). A longitudinal study of coping and gender in a female-dominated occupation: Predicting teachers’ burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 29–44. doi: 10.1037/a0018232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guglielmi, R. S., & Tatrow, K. (1998). Occupational stress, burnout, and health in teachers: A methodological and theoretical analysis. Review of Educational Research, 68, 61–99. doi: 10.3102/00346543068001061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harrell, E. (2011). Special report: Workplace violence, 1993-2009.National Crime Victimization survey and the Census of Fatal Occupational injuries. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  41. Hashemi, L., & Webster, B. S. (1998). Non-fatal workplace violence workers’ compensation claims (1993–1996). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 40(6), 561–567.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hastings, R. P., & Bham, M. S. (2003). The relationship between student behaviour patterns and teacher burnout. School Psychology International, 24, 115–127. doi: 10.1177/0143034303024001905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hollon, S. D., & Dimidjian, S. (2009). Cognitive and behavioral treatment of depression. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 586–603). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  44. Ingersoll, R. (2013, May). Why schools have difficulty staffing their classrooms with qualified teachers? United Federation of Teachers Fact Finding Hearing. New York City.Google Scholar
  45. Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 499–534. doi: 10.3102/00028312038003499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ingersoll, R. M., & May, H. (2012). The magnitude, destinations, and determinants of mathematics and science teacher turnover. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34, 435–464. doi: 10.3102/0162373712454326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Islam, S. S., Edla, S. R., Mujuru, P., Doyle, E. J., & Ducatman, A. M. (2003). Risk factors for physical assault: State-managed workers’ compensation experience. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25, 31–37. doi: 10.1016/s0749-3797(03)00095-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karasek, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(2), 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kasl, S. V. (1978). Epidemiological contributions to the study of work stress. In C. L. Cooper & R. L. Payne (Eds.), Stress at work (pp. 3–38). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Kasl, S. V. (1983). Pursuing the link between stress life experiences and disease: A time for reappraisal. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Stress research (pp. 79–102). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Kinnunen, U. (1988). Origins of teacher stress at different points of the autumn term. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 32, 153–162. doi: 10.1080/0031383880320401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kokkinen, L., Kouvonen, A., Koskinen, A., Varje, P., & Väänänen, A. (2014). Differences in hospitalizations between employment industries, Finland 1976 to 2010. Annals of Epidemiology, 24, 598-605.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.05.013
  53. Kovess-Masféty, V., Sevilla-Dedieu, C., Rios-Seidel, C., Nerrière, E., & Chan Chee, C. (2006). Do teachers have more health problems? Results from a French cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 6, 101. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-101
  54. Kristensen, T. S., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., & Christensen, K. B. (2005). The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work and Stress, 19, 192–207. doi: 10.1080/02678370500297720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. LaMar, W. J., Gerberich, S. G., Lohman, W. H., & Zaidman, B. (1998). Work-related physical assault. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 40(4), 317–324. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199804000-00005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, S., Tsang, A., & Kwok, K. (2007). Stress and mental disorders in a representative sample of teachers during education reform in Hong Kong. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 8(2), 159–178.Google Scholar
  57. Llorens-Gumbau, M., & Salanova-Soria, M. (2014). Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy. Burnout Research, 1, 3–11. doi: 10.1016/j.burn.2014.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mäkinen, R., & Kinnunen, U. (1986). Teacher stress over a school year. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 30, 55–70. doi: 10.1080/0031383860300201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  60. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Meltzer, H., Griffiths, C., Brock, A., Rooney, C., & Jenkins, R. (2008). Patterns of suicide by occupation in England and Wales: 2001–2005. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 73–76. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.040550.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Montgomery, C., & Rupp, A. A. (2005). A meta-analysis for exploring the diverse causes and effects of stress in teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 458–486. doi: 10.2307/4126479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mustard, C. A., Bielecky, A., Etches, J., Wilkins, R., Tjepkema, M., Amick, B. C., et al. (2010). Suicide mortality by occupation in Canada, 1991–2001. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(6), 369–376.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Parker, P. D., Martin, A. J., Colmar, S., & Liem, G. A. (2012). Teachers’ workplace well-being: Exploring a process model of goal orientation, coping behavior, engagement, and burnout. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 503–513. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pas, E. T., Bradshaw, C. P., & Hershfeldt, P. A. (2012). Teacher- and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: Identifying potential areas for support. Journal of School Psychology, 50, 129–145. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2011.07.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 2–21. doi: 10.2307/2136319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Peek-Asa, C., Howard, J., Vargas, L., & Kraus, J. F. (1997). Incidence of non-fatal workplace assault injuries determined from employer’s reports in California. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 39, 44–50. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199701000-00009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14, 204–220. Scholar
  69. Schonfeld, I. S. (1991). Burnout in teachers: Is it burnout or is it depression? (Report No. 335329). Washington, DC: Education Resources Information Center.Google Scholar
  70. Schonfeld, I. S. (2000). An updated look at depressive symptoms and job satisfaction in first-year women teachers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 363–371. doi: 10.1348/096317900167074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schonfeld, I. S. (2001). Stress in 1st-year women teachers: The context of social support and coping. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 127(2), 133–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Schonfeld, I. S. (2006). School violence. In E. K. Kelloway, J. Barling, & J. J. Hurrell (Eds.), Handbook of workplace violence (pp. 169–209). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schonfeld, I. S., & Bianchi, R. (2016). Burnout and depression: Two entities or one. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72, 22–37. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Schonfeld, I. S., & Chang, C.-H. (2017). Occupational health psychology: The study of work, stress, and health. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  75. Schonfeld, I. S., & Farrell, E. (2010). Qualitative methods can enrich quantitative research on occupational stress: An example from one occupational group. In D. C. Ganster & P. L. Perrewé (Eds.), Research in occupational stress and wellbeing series. Vol. 8. New developments in theoretical and conceptual approaches to job stress (pp. 137-197). Bingley, UK: Emerald. doi: 10.1108/s1479-3555(2010)0000008007
  76. Schonfeld, I. S., & Feinman, S. J. (2012). Difficulties of alternatively certified teachers. Education and Urban Society, 44, 215–246. doi: 10.1177/0013124510392570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schonfeld, I. S., Rhee, J., & Xia, F. (1995). Methodological issues in occupational-stress research: Research in one occupational group and its wider applications. In S. L. Sauter & L. R. Murphy (Eds.), Organizational risk factors for job stress (pp. 323–339). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/10173-020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schonfeld, I. S., & Santiago, E. A. (1994). Working conditions and psychological distress in first-year women teachers: Qualitative findings. In L. C. Blackman (Ed.), What works? Synthesizing effective biomedical and psychosocial strategies for healthy families in the 21st century (pp. 114–121). Indianapolis, IN: University of Indiana Press.Google Scholar
  79. Schonfeld, I. S., Verkuilen, J., & Bianchi, R. (2017, June 7–10). Confirmatory factor analysis of burnout and depressive symptoms. In 12th International conference on work, stress, and health, Minneapolis, MN.Google Scholar
  80. Shirom, A., & Melamed, S. (2006). A comparison of the construct validity of two burnout measures in two groups of professionals. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 176–200. doi: 10.1037/1072-5245.13.2.176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shirom, A., Oliver, A., & Stein, E. (2009). Teachers’ stressors and strains: A longitudinal study of their relationships. International Journal of Stress Management, 16, 312–332. doi: 10.1037/a0016842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sinclair, R. R., Martin, J. E., & Croll, L. W. (2002). A threat-appraisal perspective on employees’ fears about antisocial workplace behavior. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 37–56. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.7.1.37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Smith, H. L., & Hightower, N. J. (1948). Incidence of functional disease (neurosis) among patients of various occupations. Occupational Medicine, 5(2), 182–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Stack, S. (2001). Occupation and suicide. Social Science Quarterly, 82, 384–396. doi: 10.1111/0038-4941.00030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stallones, L., Doenges, T., Dik, B. J., & Valley, M. A. (2013). Occupation and suicide: Colorado, 2004–2006. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 56, 1290–1295. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Stansfeld, S., & Candy, B. (2006). Psychosocial work environment and mental health—a meta-analytic review. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 32, 443–462. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stansfeld, S. A., Rasul, F. R., Head, J., & Singleton, N. (2011). Occupation and mental health in a national UK survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 101–110. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0173-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Swider, B. W., & Zimmerman, R. D. (2010). Born to burnout: A meta-analytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 487–506. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2010.01.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tanaka, H., Nishio, N., Murakami, E., Mukai, M., Kinoshita, N., & Mor, I. (2001). Mortality and causes of death among Japanese school personnel between 1992 and 1996. Journal of Occupational Health, 43, 129–135. doi: 10.1539/joh.43.129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Taris, T. W., Peeters, M. C., Le Blanc, P. M., Schreurs, P. J., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). From inequity to burnout: The role of job stress. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 303–323. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.6.4.303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Taris, T. W., van Horn, J. E., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. G. (2004). Inequity, burnout and psychological withdrawal among teachers: A dynamic exchange model. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17, 103–122. doi: 10.1080/1061580031000151620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tellenback, S., Brenner, S., & Löfgren, H. (1983). Teacher stress: Exploratory model building. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 19–33. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1983.tb00106.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tennant, C. (2001). Work-related stress and depressive disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51, 697–704. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00255-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Toker, S., Melamed, S., Berliner, S., Zeltser, D., & Shapira, I. (2012). Burnout and risk of coronary heart disease: A prospective study of 8838 employees. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74, 840–847. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826c3174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Travers, C. J., & Cooper, C. L. (1994). Psychophysiological responses to teacher stress: A move toward more objective methodologies. European Review of Applied Psychology, 44(2), 137–146.Google Scholar
  96. Tuettemann, E., & Punch, K. F. (1992). Psychological distress in secondary teachers: Research findings and their implications. Journal of Educational Administration, 30(1), 42–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. van den Tooren, M., de Jonge, J., Vlerick, P., Daniels, K., & Van de Ven, B. (2011). Job resources and matching active coping styles as moderators of the longitudinal relation between job demands and job strain. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 373–383. doi: 10.1007/s12529-011-9148-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Wieclaw, J., Agerbo, E., Mortensen, P., Burr, H., Tüchsen, F., & Bonde, J. (2006). Work related violence and threats and the risk of depression and stress disorders. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 771–775. doi: 10.1136/jech.2005.042986.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Wieclaw, J., Agerbo, E., Mortensen, P. B., & Bonde, J. P. (2005). Occupational risk of affective and stress-related disorders in the Danish workforce. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 31, 343–351. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilhelm, K., Dewhurst-Savellis, J., & Parker, G. (2000). Teacher stress? An analysis of why teachers leave and why they stay. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 6, 291–304. doi: 10.1080/713698734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wulsin, L., Alterman, T., Timothy Bushnell, P., Li, J., & Shen, R. (2014). Prevalence rates for depression by industry: A claims database analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49, 1805–1821. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0891-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Younghusband, L. J. (2008, March). Violence in the classroom: The reality of a teacher’s workplace. Paper presented at the Work, Stress, and Health 2008 Conference, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irvin Sam Schonfeld
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Renzo Bianchi
    • 3
  • Peter Luehring-Jones
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe City College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Educational Psychology and PsychologyThe Graduate Center of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Work and Organizational PsychologyUniversity of NeuchâtelNeuchâtelSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations