Advertisement

Physical Activity Benefits in Active Ageing

  • Gonçalo Nuno Figueiredo DiasEmail author
  • Micael Santos Couceiro
  • Pedro Mendes
  • Maria de Lurdes Almeida
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Well-Being and Quality of Life Research book series (BRIEFSWELLBEING)

Abstract

Ageing is a biosocial process which results in the loss of capacity over time. This decline is gradual and can significantly vary from individual to individual, according to their genetic, morphological and functional characteristics. This chapter shows that regular physical activity can reduce the risk of prevalence of chronic diseases in agieng and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality of the elderly. For example, physically active elderly can have higher levels of functionality, improved cognitive performance and a lower risk of falling. On this basis, a physical activity programme can minimize the motor decline in the elderly, preventing the loss of functionality or inability of states, thus promoting significant health benefits. One can also state that more physically active older individuals have lower ratios of mortality, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, type-2 diabetes, colon cancer and breast cancer.

Keywords

Physical activity Active ageing Health Quality of life 

References

  1. Alba, S. A. (1986). Envejecimiento humano a nivel individual y de las poblaciones. In S. A. Alba, G. Llera, & J. D. Peña (Eds.), Tratado de Geríatria y Asistencia Geriátrica (pp. 15–28). Barcelona: Salvat Editores.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, M. L. (2011). Auto cuidado e promoção da saúde do idoso: contributo para uma intervenção em enfermagem. Tese de doutoramento em Enfermagem [On-line]. Consultado em 19 de maio de 2014 de http://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/handle/10216/69713.
  3. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand (ACSM). (1998). The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 30, 975–91.Google Scholar
  4. Arraiz, G. A., Wigle, D. T., & Mao, Y. (1992). Risk assessment of physical activity and physical fitness in the Canada Health Survey mortality follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauman, A., Lewicka, M., & Schöppe, S. (2005). The health benefits of physical activity in developing countries. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  6. Berger, L. (1995a). Aspectos biológicos do envelhecimento. In L. Berger & D. Mailloux-Poirier (Eds.), Pessoasidosas: Uma abordagem global (pp. 123–156). Lisboa: Lusodidacta.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, L. (1995b). Aspectos psicológicos e cognitivos do envelhecimento. In L. Berger, & D. Mailloux-Poirier (Eds.), Pessoas idosas: Uma abordagem global (pp. 157–197). Lisboa: Lusodidacta.Google Scholar
  8. Blair, S. N., Cheng, Y., & Holder, J. S. (2001). Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(6 Suppl.), S379–S399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W., Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H., & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical fitness and all cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA, 262, 2395–2401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carvalho, J., & Soares, J. M. (2004). Envelhecimento e força muscular: breve revisão. [On-line]. Obtido em 13 de Fevereiro de 2011, de Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto:http://www.projetosaudebh2011.com/news/envelhecimento%20e%20for%C3%A7a%20muscular%20-%20breve%20revis%C3%A3o/.
  11. Correia, P. P., & Silva, P. A. (1999). Alterações da função neuromuscular no idoso. Actas do Simpósio 99, Envelhecer melhor com a actividade física (pp. 51–62). Edições da Faculdade de Motricidade Humana: Cruz Quebrada.Google Scholar
  12. Dias, G., Mendes, R., Serra e Silva, P., & Banquinho, M.A. (2015). Gerontomotricidade: Actividades lúdicas e pedagógicas para o corpo envelhecido. In G. Dias, R. Mendes, P. Serra e Silva, M. A. Banquinho (Eds.). Coimbra: Escola Superior de Educação de Coimbra.Google Scholar
  13. Ekelund, L. G., Haskell, W. L., Johnson, J. L., Whaley, F. S., Criqui, M. H., & Sheps, D. S. (1988). Physical fitness as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic North American men. The lipid research clinics mortality follow-up study. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1379–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eliopoulos, C. (2011). Enfermagem gerontológica (7th ed.). Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  15. Engels, H. J., Drouin, J., Zhu, W., & Kazmierski, J. F. (1998). Effects of low-impact, moderate-intensity exercise training with and without wrist weights on functional capacities and mood states in older adults. Gerontology, 44, 239–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ettinger, W., Burns, R., Messler, S., et al. (1997). A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: The Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST). Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fonseca, V. (1998). Psicomotricidade: Filogénese, ontogénese e retrogénese. Diversos.Google Scholar
  18. Fontaine, R. (2000). Psicologia do Envelhecimento. Lisboa: Climepsi Editores.Google Scholar
  19. Franklin, B., Whaley, M., & Howley, E. (2000). ACSM´s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription.Google Scholar
  20. Freitas, E., Miranda, R., & Mônica, N. (2002). Parâmetros clínicos do envelhecimento e avaliação geriátrica global. In E. V. Freitas, L. Py, A. L. Neri, F. X. Cançado, M. Gorzoni, & S. Rocha (Eds.), Tratado de geriatria e Gerontologia (pp. 609–617). Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan.Google Scholar
  21. Godinho, M., Melo, F., Mendes, R., & Chiviacowsky, S. (1999). Aprendizagem e envelhecimento. Actas do Simpósio 99—Envelhecer melhor com a actividade física (pp. 73–80). Serviço de Edições da Faculdade de Motricidade Humana: Cruz Quebrada.Google Scholar
  22. Hausdorff, J., Nelson, M., Kaliton, D., et al. (2001). The etiology and plasticity of gait instability in older adults: A randomized controlled trial of exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90, 2117–2129.Google Scholar
  23. Hoeman, S. (2000). Lidar com doenças crónicas, incapacitantes ou do desenvolvimento. In S. Hoeman (Ed.), Enfermagem de Reabilitação—Processo e aplicação (2nd ed., pp. 209–250). Loures: Lusociência.Google Scholar
  24. Hunter, G. R., Treuth, M. S., Weinsier, R. L., Kekes-Szabo, T., Kell, S. H., Roth, D. L., et al. (1995). The effects of strength conditioning on older women’s ability to perform daily tasks. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43, 756–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kemper, H. C. G. (2006). Exercise and the physical consequences for the aging people. In J. Barreiros, M. Espanha, & P. P. Correia (Eds.), Actividade Física e Envelhecimento (pp. 121–134). Cruz Quebrada: Faculdade Motricidade Humana Serviço de Edições.Google Scholar
  26. Lakka, T. A., Venalainen, J. M., Rauramaa, R., Salonen, R., Tuomilehto, J., & Salonen, J. T. (1994). Relation of leisure-timephysical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness to the risk of acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1549–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, I. M., & Skerrett, P. J. (2001). Physical activity and all-causemortality: What is the dose-response relation?. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33 (Suppl.), S459–S471.Google Scholar
  28. Lie, H., Mundal, R., & Erikssen, J. (1985). Coronary risk factors and incidence of coronary death in relation to physical fitness.Seven-year follow-up study of middle-aged and elderly men. European Journal of Heart, 6, 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martins, R. A., Coelho e Silva, M., Pindus, D., Cumming, S., Teixeira, A., & Veríssimo, M. (2011). Effects of strength and aerobic-based training on functional fitness, mood and the relationship between fatness and mood in older adults. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 51, 489–96.Google Scholar
  30. Martins, R. A., Coelho e Silva, M. J., Teixeira, A. M., Veríssimo, M. T., & Cumming, S. P. (2010). Effects of aerobic and strength-based training on metabolic health indicators in older adults. Lipids in Health and Disease, 9, 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsudo, S. (2001). Envelhecimento & Atividade Física. Londrina: Midiograf.Google Scholar
  32. Matsudo, S. M., Matsudo, V. K. R., & Neto, T. L. B. (2001). Atividade física e envelhecimento: aspectos epidemiológicos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Esporte, 7, 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mendes, P.C., M., Almeida, & Dias, G. (2015). Benefícios da actividade física no processo de envelhecimento individual. In: Envelhecimento Activo e Actividade Física (pp. 25–42). In G. Dias, R. Mendes, P. Serra e Silva, M. A. Banquinho (Eds.). Coimbra: Escola Superior de Educação de Coimbra.Google Scholar
  34. Morris, J., Fiatarone, M., Kiely, D., et al. (1999). Nursing rehabilitation and exercise strategies in the nursing home. Journal of Gerontology Medical Sciences, 54A, M494–M500.Google Scholar
  35. Myers, J., Kaykha, A., George, S., Abella, J., Zaheer, N., Lear, S., et al. (2004). Fitness versus physical activity patterns in predicting mortality in men. American Journal of Medicine, 117, 912–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. NACA (2006). Seniores in Canada 2006 report card (Cat. Nbre HP30-1/2006E). National Advisory Council on Aging (NACA), Ottwa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  37. Nelson, M. E., Rejeski, W. J., Blair, S. N., Duncan, P. W., Judge, J. O., King, A. C., et al. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1435–1445.Google Scholar
  38. Oguma, Y., & Shinoda-Tagawa, T. (2004). Physical activity decreases cardiovascular disease risk in women: Review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26, 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Palácios, J. (2004). Mudança e Desenvolvimento Durante a Idade Adulta e a Velhice. In C. Coll, J. Palacios, & A. Marchesi (Eds.), Desenvolvimento Psicológico e Educação Psicologia Evolutiva (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Porto Alegre: Artmed.Google Scholar
  40. Pate, R. R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., et al. (1995). Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA, 273, 402–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Paterson, D., & Warburton, D. (2010). Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: Asystematic review related to Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paterson, D. H., Jones, G. R., & Rice, C. L. (2007). Le vieillissementetl’ activité physique: Donnéessurlesquelles fonder des recommandations relatives à l’exercice à l’intention des adultes ages. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 32, 75–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reis J. (1995). O envelhecimento. In T. Geriátricos (Ed.), 1º tomo. Lisboa: Prismédica.Google Scholar
  44. Roach, S. S. (2003). Introdução à Enfermagem Gerontológica. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Guanabara Koogan.Google Scholar
  45. Robertson, M., Campbell, A., Gardner, M., & Devlin, N. (2002). Preventing injuries in older people by preventing falls: meta-analysis of individual-level data. Journal American Geriatrics, 50, 905–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Robertson, M., Devlin, N., Gardner, M., & Campbell, A. (2001). Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise program to prevent falls. 1: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 322, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sandvik, L., Erikssen, J., Thaulow, E., Erikssen, G., Mundal, R., & Rodahl, K. (1993). Physical fitness as a predictor of mortality among healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 533–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh, M. A. (2002). Exercise comes of age: Rationale and recommendations for a geriatric exercise prescription. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 57, M262–M282.Google Scholar
  49. Slentz, C. A., Houmard, J. A., & Kraus, W. E. (2007). Modest exercise prevents the progressive disease associated with physical inactivity. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews, 35, 18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smilios, I., Pilianidis, T., Karamouzis, M., Parlavantzas, A., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2007). Hormonal responses after a strength endurance resistance exercise protocol in young and elderly males. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 401–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sobolski, J., Kornitzer, M., De Backer, G., Dramaix, M., Abramowicz, M., Degre, S., et al. (1987). Protection against ischemic heart disease in the Belgian Physical Fitness Study: Physical fitness rather than physical activity? American Journal of Epidemiology, 125, 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spirduso, W. W. (2005). Physical Dimensions of Aging. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  53. Staab, A. S., & Hdges, L. C. (1997). Enfermería gerontológica adaptación al proceso de envejecimiento. México: McGraw—Hill Interamericana.Google Scholar
  54. Steiner, R., Meyer, K., Lippuner, K., Schmid, J., Saner, H., & Hoppeler, H. (2004). Eccentric endurance training in subjects with coronary artery disease: A novel exercise paradigm in cardiac rehabilitation? European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 572–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stella, F., Gobbi, S., Corazza, D. I., & Costa, J. L. R. (2002). Depressão no idoso: Diagnóstico, tratamento e benefícios da atividade física. Motriz, 8, 91–98.Google Scholar
  56. Vicente, M. (2012). Manual de enfermeira geriátrica. Madrid: CTO Editorial.Google Scholar
  57. Vieira, E. B., & Koenig, A. M. (2002). Avaliação Cognitiva. In E. V. Freitas, L. Py, A. L. Néri, F. A. Cançado, M. L. Gorzoni, & S. M. Rocha (Eds.), Tratado de Geriatria e Gerontologia (pp. 921–928). Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan.Google Scholar
  58. Wieser, M., & Haber, P. (2007). The effects of systematic resistance training in the elderly. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. World Health Organization (1998). The role of physical activity in healthy ageing. Acedido em http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1998/WHO_HPR_AHE_98.2.pdf.
  60. Yassuda, M. S. (2002). Memória e envelhecimento saudável. In E. V. Freitas, L. Py, A. L. Neri, F. X. Cançado, M. Gorzoni, & S. Rocha (Eds.), Tratado de geriatria e Gerontologia (pp. 914–920). Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gonçalo Nuno Figueiredo Dias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Micael Santos Couceiro
    • 2
  • Pedro Mendes
    • 1
  • Maria de Lurdes Almeida
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education (CIDAF)University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Ingeniarius, LtdCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Nursing School of Coimbra (ESEnfC)CoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations