The Role of the Teacher in Game-Based Learning: A Review and Outlook

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter looks at the role of the teacher in game-based learning to contribute to current understanding of the agentive role of the teacher in game-based learning. There is a current trend to use digital games as tool to engage students and to enhance the learning experience in the classroom; the game-based learning discussion mainly focused on how to empower students in the classroom. Thus, the objective of this chapter is to address the role of the teacher and the most dominant obstacles in game-based learning and teaching. The chapter will illuminate and review the multiple roles the teacher currently performs in game-based learning. Moreover, this chapter will draw on Goffman’s frame analysis and teacher agency to demonstrate the implications when digital games are situated in an educational context. The chapter contends that instead of seeing the role of game-based learning to motivate and engage students, games should be viewed as an opportunity to teacher learning and empowerment, giving teachers a sense of ownership of game-based teaching and learning.

Keywords

Game-based teaching Game-based learning Teacher agency Goffman frame analysis Game design Digital games Teacher role 

References

  1. Bain, K.: What the Best College Teachers Do. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (2004)Google Scholar
  2. Bourgonjon, J., Hanghoi, T.: What does it mean to be a game literate teacher? Interviews with teachers who translate games into educational practice. In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Games-Based Learning. 2006, 67–74. Retrieved from http://www.onderwijskunde.ugent.be/downloads/Bourgonjon – Game literate.pdf (2011)
  3. Bruner, J.S.: On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand. Belknap Press of Haward University Press, Cambridge, MA (1962)Google Scholar
  4. Chee, Y.S., Mehrotra, S., Ong, J.C.: Facilitating dialog in the game-based learning clasroom: teacher challenges reconstructing professional identity. Digital Culture & Education 6(4), 298–316 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. Consalvo, M.: There is no magic circle. Games Cult. 4(4), 408–417. http://doi.org/10.1177/1555412009343575 (2009)
  6. Copier, M.: Beyond the Magic Circle: A Network Perspective On Role-Play in Online Games. Homo. Retrieved from http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/2007-0710-214621/index.htm (2007)
  7. Crawford, G.: Forget the magic circle (or towards a sociology of video games). Under Mask. 2, 1–15. Retrieved from http://underthemask.wikidot.com/key-note (2009)
  8. De Freitas, S.: Learning in Immersive worlds A review of game-based learning Prepared for the JISC e-Learning Programme. JISC. eLearning Innov. 3.3(October 14), 73. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01024.x (2007)
  9. Dewey, J.: Experience and Education. Collier Macmillan, New York (1938)Google Scholar
  10. Eastwood, J.L., Sadler, T.D.: Teachers’ implementation of a game-based biotechnology curriculum. Comput. Educ. 66, 11–24 http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.02.003 (2013)
  11. Ehn, P., Kyng, M.: The collective resource approach to systems design. In: Bjerknes, G., Ehn, P., Kyng, M. (eds.) Computers and Democracy: A Scandinavian Challenge, pp. 17–57. Avebury, Aldershot (1987)Google Scholar
  12. Fischer, G.: Beyond “Couch Potatoes”: from consumers to designers. FirstMonday Peer-Rev. J. 7(12) (2002)Google Scholar
  13. Fischer, G.: Learning, social creativity, and culture of participation. In: Sannino, A., Ellis, V. (eds.) Learning and Collective Creativity: Activity-Theoretical and Sociocultural Studies, pp. 198–215. Routledge, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  14. Frank, A.: Gaming the game: a study of the gamer mode in educational wargaming. Simul. Gaming. 43(1), 118–132. http://doi.org/10.1177/1046878111408796 (2011)
  15. Franklin, T., Annetta, L.: Special issue: digital games and simulations in teacher preparation. J. Technol. Teach. Educ. 19(3), 239–242 (2011)Google Scholar
  16. Gee, J.P.: Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. Routledge, London (2004)Google Scholar
  17. Gee, J.P.: What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy. Palgrave MacMillan, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  18. Girard, C., Ecalle, J., Magnan, A.: Serious games as new educational tools: How effective are they? A meta-analysis of recent studies. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 29(3), 207–219. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2012.00489.x 2013
  19. Goffman, E.: Fun in Games. In: Encounters -Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction, pp. 7–81. Penguin, Harmondsworth (1961)Google Scholar
  20. Goffman, E.: Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Northeastern University Press, Boston (1974)Google Scholar
  21. Hanghøj, T., Brund, C.: Teacher roles and positionings in relation to educational games. In: European Conference of Games Based Learning, pp. 116–122 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. Hattie, J.: Teachers make a difference what is the research evidence? Lloydia Cincinnati. 12(2002), 1–17. Retrieved from http://www.annedavies.com/pdf/19C_expertteachers_hattie.pdf (2003)
  23. Hourcade, J.P.: Research philosophies in interaction design and children. Children. 1(4), 277–392. http://doi.org/10.1561/1100000006 (2008)
  24. Huizinga, J.: Homo Ludens – A Study of the Play-Element in Culture. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London (1949)Google Scholar
  25. Kapp, K.M.: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-Based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education. Pfeiffer, San Francisco (2012)Google Scholar
  26. Kenny, R., Gunter, G.: Factors affecting adoption of video games in the classroom. J Interact. Learn. Res. 22(2), 259–276 (2011)Google Scholar
  27. Kennedy-Clark, S., Galstaun, V., Anderson, K.: Death in Rome: using an online game for inquiry-based learning in a preservice teacher training course. In Cases on Digital Game-Based Learning, pp. 364–382. IGI Global, Hershey. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2848-9.ch018 (2013)
  28. Kestenbaum, D.: The challenges of interaction design and children: what have we learned from our past. Commun. ACM. 48(1), 35–38. http://doi.org/Doi 10.1145/1039539.1039566 (2005)
  29. Koh, E., Kin, Y.G., Wadhwa, B., Lim, J.: Teacher perceptions of games in Singapore schools. Simul. Gaming. 43(1), 51–66. http://doi.org/10.1177/1046878111401839 (2012)
  30. Kumpulainen, K., Sefton-Green, J.: What is connected learning and how to research it? Int. J. Learn. Media. 4(1), 9–24. http://doi.org/10.1162/IJLM (2014)
  31. Lasky, S.: A sociocultural approach to understanding teacher identity, agency and professional vulnerability in a context of secondary school reform. Teach. Teach. Educ. 21(8), 899–916. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2005.06.003 (2005)
  32. Leinonen, T.: Designing Learning Tools, Methodological Insights. Aalto University, Espoo (2010)Google Scholar
  33. Louise, S., Renaud, L., Kaufman, D.: Cognitive and affective impacts of online game-based learning about STIs: formative evaluation by experts. In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, pp. 1739–1743 (2008)Google Scholar
  34. Magnussen, R.: Teacher roles in learning games – When games become situated in schools. In: Situated Play, Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference, pp. 610–615. Retrieved fromhttp://www.digra.org/dl/db/07312.54512.pdf (2007)
  35. Malone, T.W.: Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction*. Cogn. Sci.: A Multidiscip. J. 5(4), 333–369. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0504 (1981)
  36. Marklund, B.: Out of context: understanding the practicalities of learning games. In: DiGRA 2014 Conference: The Game (2014)Google Scholar
  37. Marklund, B., Taylor, A.A.: Teachers’ many roles in game-based learning projects. In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference of Game-Based Learning, pp. 359–367 (2015)Google Scholar
  38. McGonigal, J.: Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. Penguin Books, London (2011)Google Scholar
  39. Mooney, C.G.: Theories of Childhood, 2nd edn. Redleaf Press, St. Paul (2013)Google Scholar
  40. Piaget, J.: Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood. Norton, New York (1951)Google Scholar
  41. Prensky, M.: Digital Game-Based Learning. Paragon House, St. Paul (2001)Google Scholar
  42. Ramirez, D., Squire, K.: Gamification and Learning. In: The Gameful World – Approaches, Issues, Applications, pp. 629–652. The MIT Press, London (2014)Google Scholar
  43. Razak, A.A., Connolly, T., Hainey, T.: Teachers’ views on the approach of digital games-based learning within the curriculum for excellence. Int. J. Game-Based. Learn. 2(1), 33–51.http://doi.org/10.4018/ijgbl.2012010103 (2012)
  44. Shaffer, D.W.: How Computer Games Help Children Learn. Palgrave MacMillan, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  45. Shah, M., Foster, A.: Developing and assessing teachers’ knowledge of game-based learning. Technol. Teach. Educ. 23(2), 241–267 (2015)Google Scholar
  46. Shapiro, J., Salen, K., Schwartz, K., Darvasi, P.: Guide to Digital Games + Learning About the MindShift Guide to Digital Games and Learning As MindShift continues to cover many aspects of.. Retrieved from http://www.kqed.org/assets/pdf/news/MindShift-GuidetoDigitalGamesandLearning.pdf (2014)
  47. Silseth, K.: Constructing learning dialogically; learners, contexts and resources exploring how students and teachers participate in game-based learning and digital storytelling in educational settings, (October) (2012)Google Scholar
  48. Squire, K.: Video Games and Learning: Teaching in the Participatory Culture in the Digital Age. Teachers College Press, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  49. Steinkuehler, C., Squire, K., Barab, S.: Games, Learning, and Society. Learning and Meaning in the Digital Age. Cambridge University Press, New York (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Takeuchi, B.L.M., Vaala, S.: Level Up Learning: A National Survey On Teaching With Digital Games. Games and Learning Publishing Council, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  51. Toikkanen, T., Keune, A., Leinonen, T.: Designing Edukata, a participatory design model for creating learning activities. In: Re-engineering the Uptake of ICT in Schools, pp. 41–58. Springer Open, Cham. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19366-3 (2015)
  52. Ulicsak, M., Williamson, B.: Computer games and learning: A Futurelab handbook. Retrieved from http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/discussion_papers/Computer_Games_and_Learning_discpaper.pdf\nhttp://admin.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/discussion_papers/Computer_Games_and_Learning_discpaper.pdf(2010)
  53. Vähäsantanen, K.: Vocational Teachers’ Professional Agency in the Stream of Change Katja Vähäsantanen Vocational Teachers’ Professional Agency in the Stream of Change.http://doi.org/ISBN0075–4625 (2013)
  54. Vähäsantanen, K., Saarinen, J., Eteläpelto, A.: Between school and working life: vocational teachers’ agency in boundary-crossing settings. Int. J. Educ. Res. 48(6), 395–404.http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2010.04.003 (2009)
  55. Vygotsky, L.S.: Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1978)Google Scholar
  56. Wastiau, P., Kearney, C., Van den Berghe, W.: How are Digital Games Used in Schools? pp. 1–174. Retrieved from http://games.eun.org/upload/gis-full_report_en.pdf (2009)
  57. Watson, W.R., Mong, C.J., Harris, C.A.: A case study of the in-class use of a video game for teaching high school history. Comput. Educ. 56(2), 466–474. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.09.007 (2011)
  58. Zimmerman, E., Salen Tekinbas, K.: Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals. MIT Press, London (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations