Advertisement

Mechanical, Thermal, Morphology and Barrier Properties of Flexible Film Based on Polyethylene-Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Blend Reinforced with Graphene Oxide

  • Julyana G. Santana
  • Angel Ortiz
  • Rene R. Oliveira
  • Vijay K. Rangari
  • Olgun Güven
  • Esperidiana A. B. Moura
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymers are widely used in the food packaging industry as gas barrier properties to oxygen, organic solvents, and food aromas. EVOH is very sensitive to moisture and its gas barrier ability deteriorates in high relative humidity conditions. This work aims to prepare flexible films based on melt-blending high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene-vinyl alcohol (HDPE/EVOH/EVA blend) reinforced with graphene oxide (GO). The HDPE/EVOH/EVA/GO flexible films were prepared by twin-screw extrusion and blown film extrusion processing. The flexible films samples were characterized by tensile tests, TG, DSC and FE-SEM analysis and the correlation between properties was discussed. In addition, the oxygen permeability tests were performed at 23 °C, 0 and 90% relative humidity using an OX-TRAN (MOCON Inc.).

Keywords

HDPE/EVOH blend DSC TG Graphene oxide Tensile tests DSC 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Intermarketing Brasil and Kuraray Group to provide for raw materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, CAPES and IAEA for financial support through IAEA-CRP 17760 RO.

References

  1. 1.
    Franco-Urquiza E et al (2010) Influence of processing on the ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) properties: application of the successive self-nucleation and annealing (SSA) technique. Express polym Lett 4(3):153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mokwena KK, Tang J (2012) Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods. Food Sci Nutr 52:640–650Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramakrishnan S (1991) Well-defined ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers via hydroboration: control of composition and distribution of the hydroxyl groups on the polymer backbone. J Macromol 24:3753–3759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lagaron JM, Giménez E, Saura JJ (2001) Degradation of high barrier ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer under mild thermal-oxidative conditions studied by thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. J Polym Int 50:635–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lima JA, Felisberti MI (2008) Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) and poly(methyl methacrylate) blends: phase behavior and morphology. J Eur Polym 44:1140–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aucejo S, Marco C, Gavara R (1999) Water effect on the morphology of EVOH copolymers. J Appl Polym Sci 74:1201–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cabedo L et al (2006) The effect of ethylene content on the interaction between ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers and water—II: Influence of water sorption on the mechanical properties of EVOH copolymers. Polym Test 25:860–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kucukpinar E, Doruker P (2004) Effect of absorbed water on oxygen transport in EVOH matrices. A molecular dynamics study. Polymer 45:3555–3564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canevarolo Jr SV (2006) Ciência dos Polímeros. Artliber Ed Ltda 2Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Samios CK, Kalfoglou NK (1998) Compatibilization of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) and EVOH/HDPE blends with ionomers. Structure and properties. Elsevier Science Ltd. Polymer 39(16):3863–3870Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kamal MR, Garmabi H, Hozhabr S, Arghyris L (1995) The development of laminar morphology during extrusion of polymer blends. Polym Eng Sci 35(1):41–51Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Walling N, Kamal MR (1995) Adv Polym Technol 5:269Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prasad A, Jackson P (1996) Polym Mater Sci Eng 75:281Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goulas AE, Riganakos KA, Kontominas MG (2003) Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial multilayer coextruded flexible plastics packaging materials. Radiat Phys Chem 68:865–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Elmaghor F, Zhang LY, Li HQ (2002) China Synth Rubber Ind 25:175Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mokwena KK, Tang J (2012) Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52:640–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yang J et al (2013) Thermal reduced graphene based poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites: enhanced mechanical properties, gas barrier, water resistance, and thermal stability. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:16745–16754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hummers, JWS (1957) Preparation of graphitic acid. US Patent 2798878Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) The rise of graphite. Nat Mater 6:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Du J, Cheng H-M (2012) The fabrication, properties, and uses of graphene/polymer composites. Macromol Chem Phys 213(10–11):1060–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim D, Kwon H, Seo J (2014) EVOH nanocomposite films with enhanced barrier properties under high humidity conditions. Polym Compos 35:644–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julyana G. Santana
    • 1
  • Angel Ortiz
    • 1
  • Rene R. Oliveira
    • 1
  • Vijay K. Rangari
    • 2
  • Olgun Güven
    • 3
  • Esperidiana A. B. Moura
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas E Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SPSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringTuskegee UniversityTuskegeeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry Polymer Chemistry DivisionHacettepe UniversityBeytepeTurkey

Personalised recommendations