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Sulfur Metabolism in Phototrophic Bacteria

  • Christiane DahlEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Sulfur is one of the most versatile elements in life due to its reactivity in different oxidation and reduction states. In contrast to the assimilatory provision of sulfur-containing cell constituents that is found in most taxonomic groups, dissimilation is restricted to prokaryotes and serves energy-yielding processes where sulfur compounds are donors or acceptors of electrons. In many anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, reduced sulfur compounds play a prominent role as electron donors for photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. This process is especially characteristic for the green sulfur bacteria (GSB) and the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Allochromatium vinosum and Chlorobaculum tepidum , representatives of the PSB and GSB, respectively, are the workhorses for detailed elucidation of sulfur oxidation pathways. Genes identified in these organisms served as the basis of a genome-based survey of the distribution of genes involved in the oxidation of sulfur compounds in other genome-sequenced anoxygenic phototrophs. These analyses show that dissimilatory sulfur metabolism is very complex and built together from various modules encoding different enzymes in the different organisms. Comparative genomics in combination with biochemical data also provide a clear picture of sulfate assimilation in anoxygenic phototrophs.

Keywords

Sulfur metabolism Purple sulfur bacteria Sulfur globules Sulfide Thiosulfate Tetrathionate Sulfate Allochromatium vinosum Green sulfur bacteria Sulfur oxidation Assimilatory sulfate reduction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support by the Deutsche Forschungsgenmeinschaft (Grant Da 351/6-2) is gratefully acknowledged.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Mikrobiologie & Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität BonnBonnGermany

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