As defined by US federal regulations for Public Health Service (PHS) agencies (NIH, CDC, etc.), research misconduct means:
Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them,
Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.
42 CFR 93.103
KeywordsResearch misconduct Falsification Fabrication
Additional Suggested Reading
- O’Leary P. Policing research misconduct. Albany Law J Sci Technol. 2015;25(1):39–93. (Explores options for controlling research misconduct, well beyond current policy.) Google Scholar