• Arthur L. Caplan
  • Barbara K. Redman


While reproducibility has long been a cornerstone of the scientific method, it is currently an active area for reaffirming scientific standards. Medicine, psychology, neuroscience, genetics, and economics are examples of fields actively working to assess the quality of their science.


Reproducibility Replication 


  1. Etz A, Vanderkerckhove J. A Bayesian perspective on the reproducibility project: psychology. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0149794.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Goodman SN, Fanelli D, Ioannidis JPA. What does research reproducibility mean? Sci Transl Med. 2016;8(341):1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Koffel JB, Rethlefsen JL. Reproducibiity of search strategies is poor in systematic reviews published in high-impact pediatrics, cardiology and surgery journals: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0163309.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Pulverer B. Reproducibility blues. EMBO J. 2015;34(22):2721–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Van Bavel JJ, Mende-Siedlecki P, Brady WJ, Reinero DA. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility. PNAS USA. 2016;113(23):6454–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Additional Suggested Reading

  1. Begley CG, Ioannidis JPA. Reproducibility in science; improving the standard for basic and preclinical research. Circ Res. 2015;116:116–26. (Standards for basic and preclinical research must be improved.)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Freedman LP, Inglese J. The increasing urgency for standards in basic biologic research. Cancer Res. 2014;74(15):4024–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur L. Caplan
    • 1
  • Barbara K. Redman
    • 1
  1. 1.New York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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