• Arthur L. Caplan
  • Barbara K. Redman


Science policy creates a de facto contract between science and society involving the provision of public resources to pay for research, while requiring honoring a regulatory system and creating the institutions to perform research. All of these policy elements have an effect on research integrity, and as those effects become known, they suggest how the policy elements are performing to support valid science while also protecting research subjects and insuring that public money is being used responsibly.


Science policy Public accountability 


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Additional Suggested Reading

  1. Alberts B, Kirschner M, Tilghman S, Varmus H. Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws. PNAS. 2014;111(16):5773–7. (Suggests immediate changes needed to reverse the unsustainable path of the biomedical research enterprise in the United States.)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kaiser D, Moreno J. Self-censorship is not enough. Nature. 2012;492:345–7. (Describes 1975 history of self-censorship around recombinant DNA until scientists could develop safety protocols, and 2012 voluntary moratorium on flu-virus research but concludes that self-censorship is insufficient.) CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kretser A, Murphy D, Dwyer J. Scientific integrity resource guide: Efforts by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia in the United States. Crit Rev. Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(1):163–80. (Provides a resource on scientific integrity standards.)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur L. Caplan
    • 1
  • Barbara K. Redman
    • 1
  1. 1.New York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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