Blue Light Endoscopy

  • Saman Moazami
  • Mark P. Schoenberg
  • Joshua M. SternEmail author


The ability to accurately predict pathologic stage and grade of Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma (UTUC) is crucial for prognostication and selection of appropriate therapeutic intervention. The advent of high definition flexible ureteroscopy has increased the use of minimally invasive endoscopic evaluation and treatment of UTUC. Nonetheless, accurate endoscopic staging of upper tract tumors remains challenged by difficult visualization and the limited size of the pathologic specimen obtained. Adjunct technology that could help accurately stage endoscopic biopsies would be of benefit to patients with UTUC. Blue light endoscopy (HAL-BLC) is such a technology, and has been recently adopted adjunct to standard white light endoscopy in bladder cancer management. Data on HAL-BLC show increasing rates of tumor detection and an increase in recurrence free survival. There are small, but promising early studies using photodynamic therapy in the upper tract which are reviewed herein.


Upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma Blue light Ureteroscopy Photodynamic therapy 5-ALA HAL 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saman Moazami
    • 1
  • Mark P. Schoenberg
    • 1
  • Joshua M. Stern
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of UrologyMontefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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