Epidemiology and Presentation

  • Muhammad S. ChoudhuryEmail author


Upper Urinary Tract (UUT) urothelial malignancy, a relatively uncommon urologic cancer, is defined as a neoplastic growth affecting the urothelial lining of the renal pyelocalyceal system and the ureter and likely represent a “field defect”, in that the entire urothelium is exposed to carcinogen and susceptible to malignant transformation (Sagalowsky in Campbell-Walsh Urology. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2011 [13]). Like patients with bladder transitional cell cancer, patients with UUT transitional cell cancer, have a similar age, sex, and race distribution in that the majority of the patients are older than 60 years, male and caucasian (David et al. in Cancer 1:1435–47, 2009 [1]). They also share some of the same risk factors such as smoking and occupational carcinogen exposure but UUT urothelial malignancy have some unique risk factors of its own, for example, being part of certain genetic syndrome and exposure to Aristolochic Acid (Colin et al. in BJU Int. 104:1436–40, 2009 [19]). In this chapter, the epidemiology, presentation and risk factors for upper urinary tract urothelial malignancy are discussed.


Upper urinary tract cancer Epidemiology Hematuria Lynch syndrome Smoking Aristolochic acid Analgesic abuse Bladder cancer 



Author acknowledges the contribution of Michael Stern, MD, Westchester Medical Health Network, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY and thanks him for his helpful comments and feedback.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyWestchester Medical Health Network/New York Medical CollegeValhallaUSA

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