Advertisement

Fundamental Discovery of Q-Phases and Direct Conversion of Carbon into Diamond and h-BN into c-BN

  • Jagdish Narayan
  • Anagh Bhaumik
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

This article reviews the discovery of new phases of carbon (Q-carbon) and BN (Q-BN) and addresses critical issues related to direct conversion of carbon into diamond and h-BN into c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air without any need for catalyst and presence of hydrogen. The Q-carbon and Q-BN are formed as a result of quenching from super undercooled state by using high-power nanosecond laser pulses. We discuss the equilibrium phase diagram (P vs. T) of carbon, and show that by rapid quenching kinetics can shift thermodynamic graphite/diamond/liquid carbon triple point from 5000 K/12 GPa to super undercooled (4000 K) carbon at atmospheric pressure in air. Similarly, the hBN-cBN-Liquid triple point is shifted from 3500 K/9.5 GPa to as low as 2800 K and atmospheric pressure. It is shown that nanosecond laser heating of amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline BN on sapphire, glass and polymer substrates can be confined to melt in a super undercooled state. By quenching this super undercooled state, we have created a new state of carbon (Q-carbon) and BN (Q-BN) from which nanocrystals, microcrystals, nanoneedles, microneedles and thin films are formed. The large-area epitaxial diamond and c-BN films are formed, when appropriate planar matching or lattice matching template is provided for growth from super undercooled liquid state. Scale-up processing of diamond, c-BN and diamond/c-BN heterostructures and related nanostructures such as nanodots, microdots, nanoneedles, microneedles and large-area single-crystal thin films will have tremendous impact on applications ranging from abrasive and tool coatings to high-power devices and myriad of biomedical applications.

Keywords

Carbon phase diagram Raman spectroscopy Diamond/c-BN heterostructures 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Fan Family Foundation Distinguished Chair Endowment for Professor J. Narayan, and this research was partly funded by the National Science Foundation. We are also very pleased to acknowledge technical help and useful discussions with John Prater, and Ki Wook Kim.

References

  1. 1.
    F.P. Bundy, W.A. Bassett, M.S. Weathers, R.J. Hemley, H.U. Mao, A.F. Goncharov, The pressure-temperature phase and transformation diagram for carbon; updated through 1994. Carbon N. Y. 34, 141 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Narayan, V.P. Godbole, C.W. White, Laser method for synthesis and processing of continuous diamond films on nondiamond substrates. Science 252, 416–418 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Narayan, A. Bhaumik, Novel phase of carbon, ferromagnetism and conversion into diamond. J. Appl. Phys. 118, 215303 (2015); and three US Patents Pending (62/245,108 (2015); 62/202,202 (2015); and 62/331.217 (2016)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Narayan, A. Bhaumik, Direct conversion of h-BN into c-BN and formation of epitaxial c-BN/diamond heterostructures. J. Appl. Phys. 119, 185302 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Narayan, A. Bhaumik, Research update: direct conversion of amorphous carbon into diamond at ambient pressures and temperatures in air. APL Mater. 3, 100702 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Narayan, A. Bhaumik, Research update: direct conversion of h-BN into pure c-BN at ambient temperatures and pressures in air. APL Mater. 4, 020701 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Narayan, A. Bhaumik, Q-carbon discovery and formation of single-crystal diamond and nano- and microneedles and thin films. Mater. Res. Lett. (2016). Doi: 10.1080/21663931.2015.1126865
  8. 8.
    J.C. Angus, C.C. Hayman, Low-pressure, metastable growth of diamond and ‘diamondlike’ phases. Science 241, 913–921 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y. Gogotsi, S. Welz, D.A. Ersoy, M.J. McNallan, Conversion of silicon carbide to crystalline diamond-structured carbon at ambient pressure. Nature 411, 283–287 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Narayan, B.C. Larson, Domain epitaxy: a unified paradigm for thin film growth. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 278 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Steinbeck, G. Braunstein, M.S. Dresselhaus, T. Venkatesan, D.C. Jacobson, A model for pulsed laser melting of graphite. J. Appl. Phys. 58, 4374 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Steinbeck, G. Braunstein, G. Dresselhaus, M.S. Dresselhaus, T. Venkatesan, D.C. Jacobson, Segregation of impurities in pulsed-laser-melted carbon. J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1802 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Prawer, R.J. Nemanich, Raman spectroscopy of diamond and doped diamond. Philos. Trans. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 362, 2537 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F.R. Corrigan, F.P. Bundy, Direct transitions among the allotropic forms of boron nitride at high pressures and temperatures. J. Chem. Phys. 63, 3812 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    V.L. Solozhenko, N.F. Ostrovskaya, Structural peculiarities of graphite-like boron nitride produced by crystallization in the region of metastability. Mater. Lett. 25, 133–137 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    V.L. Solozhenko, V.Z. Turkevich, W.B. Holzapfel, Refined phase diagram of boron nitride. J. Phys. Chem. B. 103, 2903–2905 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.B. Samantaray, R.N. Singh, Review of synthesis and properties of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) thin films. Int. Mater. Rev. 50, 313–344 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P.B. Mirkarimi, K.F. McCarty, D.L. Medlin, Review of advances in cubic boron nitride film synthesis. Mater. Sci. Eng. R Rep. 21, 47–100 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Centennial CampusNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations