• Aniyizhai Annamalai


Constipation is traditionally defined as defecation less than three times weekly. But it can also be disruption in bowel movements due to increased straining, sense of incomplete evacuation, or feeling of blockage during defecation. Chronic constipation is reported in at least 15% the general population and up to 57.7% in people with mental illness [1].


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Bowel Movement Atypical Antipsychotic Chronic Constipation Colonic Transit 
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    De Hert M, Dockx L, Bernagie C, Peuskens B, Sweers K, Leucht S, et al. Prevalence and severity of antipsychotic related constipation in patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective descriptive study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:17.Google Scholar
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    De Hert M, Hudyana H, Dockx L, Bernagie C, Sweers K, Tack J, et al. Second-generation antipsychotics and constipation: a review of the literature. Eur Psychiatry. 2011;26(1):34–44.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aniyizhai Annamalai
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Internal Medicine & PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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