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Visual Processing in Cortical Architecture from Neuroscience to Neuromorphic Computing

  • Tobias Brosch
  • Stephan Tschechne
  • Heiko Neumann
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10087)

Abstract

Primate cortices are organized into different layers which constitute a compartmental structure on a functional level. We show how composite structural elements form building blocks to define canonical elements for columnar computation in cortex. As a further abstraction, we define a dynamical three-stage model of a cortical column for processing that allows to investigate the dynamic response properties of cortical algorithms, e.g., feedforward signal integration as feature detection filters, lateral feature grouping, and the integration of modulatory (feedback) signals. Using such multi-stage cortical model, we investigate the detection and integration of spatio-temporal motion measured by event-based (frame-less) cameras. We demonstrate how the canonical neural circuit can improve such representations using normalization and feedback and develop key computational elements to map such a model onto neuromorphic hardware (IBM’s TrueNorth chip). This makes a step towards implementing real-time and energy-efficient neuromorphic optical flow detectors based on realistic principles of computation in cortical columns.

Keywords

Canonical neural circuit Cortical column Motion detection Optical flow Feedback Neuromorphic computing 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported in part by a grant from the Transregional Collaborative Research Center “A Companion-Technology for Cognitive Technical Systems” SFB/TRR 62 funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support via a field test agreement between Ulm University and IBM Research Almaden as well as the support of NVIDIA Corporation with the donation of the Tesla K40 GPU used for this research.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias Brosch
    • 1
  • Stephan Tschechne
    • 1
  • Heiko Neumann
    • 1
  1. 1.Neural Information Processing, Faculty of Engineering, Computer Science, and PsychologyUlm UniversityUlmGermany

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