Advertisement

Protecting Religion: Muslim Opposition and Dissidence against Western Representations of Islam

  • Claudia Baumgart-Ochse
Chapter
Part of the Global Issues book series (GLOISS)

Abstract

In 2005, 12 cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. This event triggered mass protests and riots by Muslim activists across the world. These protests have not, however, been the only form of resistance to the Western secular liberal order and its preference for freedom of expression over the protection of religion against insult. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) sought to get such protection established as a new norm in international human rights law, through a series of United Nations resolutions banning ‘the defamation of religions’. Despite initial success, the highly contradictory natures of the two norms at issue, amongst others, prevented a lasting change in the normative hierarchy between freedom of expression and the protection of religion.

Keywords

United Nations Western State Muslim Country Hate Speech Terror Attack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aswad, Evelyn M., Rashad Hussain, and Arsalan M. Suleman. 2014. ‘Why the United States Cannot Agree to Disagree on Blasphemy Laws’. Boston University International Law Journal 32: 119–46.Google Scholar
  2. Bahçecik, Şerif O. 2013. ‘Internationalizing Islamophobia: Anti-Islamophobic Practices from the Runnymede Trust to the Organization of Islamic Cooperation’. Ortadoğu Etütleri 5(1): 141–65.Google Scholar
  3. Besant, Alexander, and Sebastian Malo. 2009. ‘Dim Prospects for the United Nations Human Rights Council’. Yale Journal of International Affairs 4: 144–8.Google Scholar
  4. Bettiza, Gregorio, and Filippo Dionigi. 2014. ‘How Do Religious Norms Diffuse? Institutional Translation and International Change in a Post-Secular World Society’. European Journal of International Relations 21(3): 621–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bielefeldt, Heiner. 2012. ‘Streit um die Religionsfreiheit: Aktuelle Facetten der internationalen Debatte’. Erlanger Universitätsreden 77(3).Google Scholar
  6. Blitt, Robert C. 2011. ‘Defamation of Religion: Rumors of its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated’. Case Western Reserve Law Review 62(2): 347–97.Google Scholar
  7. Bonde, Bent N. 2007. ‘How 12 Cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed Were Brought to Trigger an International Conflict’. Nordicom Review 28(1): 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassidy, Elizabeth. 2013. ‘Fighting Religious Hatred while Protecting Free Speech’. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 12 December. Accessed 20 December 2013. http://journal.georgetown.edu/fighting-religious-hatred-whileprotecting-free-speech-by-elizabeth-cassidy/.
  9. Cieschinger, Almut. 2009. ‘Der Dichter und sein Henker: 20 Jahre Rushdie-Affäre’. Spiegel Online, 13 February. Accessed 16 January 2015. http://www.spiegel.de/einestages/20-jahre-rushdie-affaere-a-948169.html.
  10. Cismas, Ioana. 2014. Religious Actors and International Law. Oxford/New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dobras, Rebecca J. 2008. ‘Is the United Nations Endorsing Human Rights Violations? An Analysis of the United Nations’ Combating Defamation of Religions Resolutions and Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws’. Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law 37: 339–80.Google Scholar
  12. Donnelly, Jack. 2013. International Human Rights (Dilemmas in World Politics). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  13. El-Gawahry, Karim. 2015. ‘Wenn Bärtige zeichnen schwierig ist’. TAZ online. 24 January. Accessed 25 January 2015. http://www.taz.de/!5023189/.
  14. Fattah, Hassan M. 2006. ‘At Mecca Meeting, Cartoon Outrage Crystallized’. New York Times, 9 February.Google Scholar
  15. FIDH. 2015. ‘Written Submission 5th Session of the Istanbul Process, OIC General Secretariat’. Jeddah, Saudi-Arabia, 3–4 June.Google Scholar
  16. Foster, Joshua. 2009. ‘Prophets, Cartoons, and Legal Norms: Rethinking the United Nations Defamation of Religion Provisions’. Journal of Catholic Legal Studies 18(19): 19–57.Google Scholar
  17. Graham, Bennett. 2009. ‘Defamation of Religions: The End of Pluralism?’. Emory International Law Review 23: 69–84.Google Scholar
  18. Huntington, Samuel P. 1993. ‘The Clash of Civilizations?’. Foreign Affairs 72(3): 22–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kayaoglu, Turan. 2014. ‘Giving an Inch Only to Lose a Mile: Muslim States, Liberalism, and Human Rights in the United Nations’. Human Rights Quarterly 36(1): 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kayaoglu, Turan. 2015. ‘The OIC’s Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission: An Early Assessment’. Matters of Concern: Human Rights Research Papers, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  21. Kayaoglu, Turan, and Marie Juul Petersen. 2013. ‘Will Istanbul Process Relieve the Tension Between the Muslim World and the West?’ The Washington Review of Turkish & Eurasian Affairs, 30 September. Accessed 7 July 2105. http://www.thewashingtonreview.org/articles/will-istanbul-process-relieve-the-tension-between-the-muslim-world-and-the-west.html.
  22. Keane, David. 2008. ‘Cartoon Violence and Freedom of Expression’. Human Rights Quarterly 30: 845–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klausen, Jytte. 2009. The Cartoons that Shook the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Limon, Marc, Lazila Ghanea, and Hilary Power. 2014. Combating Global Religious Intolerance: The Implementation of Human Rights Council Resolution 16/18. Policy Report. Versoix: Universal Rights Group.Google Scholar
  25. Müller, Harald. 1998. Das Zusammenleben der Kulturen: Ein Gegenentwurf zu Huntington. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  26. OHCHR. 2012. ‘Rabat Plan of Action on the Prohibition of Advocacy of National, Racial or Religious Hatred that Constitutes Incitement to Discrimination, Hostility or Violence’, 5 October. Accessed 14 June 2016. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Opinion/SeminarRabat/Rabat_draft_outcome.pdf.
  27. Olesen, Thomas. 2007. ‘Contentious Cartoons: Elite and Media-Driven Mobilization’. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 12(1): 37–52.Google Scholar
  28. Organization of the Islamic Conference. 2005. ‘Final Communique of the Third OIC Summit’. 7–8 December. Accessed 14 June 2016. https://www.saudiembassy.net/archive/2005/statements/page5.aspx.
  29. Peres, Shimon. 1993. Die Versöhnung: Der neue Nahe Osten. Berlin: Siedler Verlag.Google Scholar
  30. Pew Research Center. 2012. ‘Most Muslims Want Democracy, Personal Freedoms, and Islam in Political Life’. Global Attitudes Project. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Ratzinger, Joseph. 2006. ‘Glaube, Vernunft und Universität: Erinnerungen und Reflexionen, Speech on Apostolic Journey of his Holiness Benedikt XVI. to Munich, Altötting and Regensburg’. 9–14 September. Accessed 7 March 2015. http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/speeches/2006/september/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20060912_university-regensburg.html.
  32. Rehman, Javaid, and Stephanie E. Berry. 2012. ‘Is “Defamation of Religions” Passé? The United Nations, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and Islamic State Practices: Lessons From Pakistan’. George Washington International Law Review 44: 431–72.Google Scholar
  33. Religionsmonitor. 2015. Sonderauswertung Islam 2015: Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse im Überblick. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  34. Senghaas, Dieter. 1998. Zivilisierung wider Willen: Der Konflikt der Kulturen mit sich selbst. Frankfurt am Main: Edition Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  35. Temperman, Jeroen. 2008. ‘Blasphemy, Defamation of Religions & Human Rights Law’. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights 26(4): 517–45.Google Scholar
  36. UNGA. 1945. ‘Charter of the United Nations’. 26 June. Accessed 14 June 2016. http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/preamble.shtml.
  37. UNGA. 1976. ‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights’. 23 March. Accessed 14 June 2016. http://bit.ly/Jz4HwZ.
  38. Wastnidge, Edward. 2011. ‘Détente and Dialogue: Iran and the OIC during the Khatami Era (1997–2005)’. Politics, Religion, & Ideology 12(4): 413–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zeit Online. 2015. ‘Iranische Karikaturisten machen sich über IS lustig’, 31 May. Accessed 2 July 2015. http://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/zeitgeschehen/2015-05/iran-teheran-karikaturen-ausstellung.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF)Frankfurt am MainGermany

Personalised recommendations