Protecting Religion: Muslim Opposition and Dissidence against Western Representations of Islam

  • Claudia Baumgart-Ochse
Part of the Global Issues book series (GLOISS)


In 2005, 12 cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. This event triggered mass protests and riots by Muslim activists across the world. These protests have not, however, been the only form of resistance to the Western secular liberal order and its preference for freedom of expression over the protection of religion against insult. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) sought to get such protection established as a new norm in international human rights law, through a series of United Nations resolutions banning ‘the defamation of religions’. Despite initial success, the highly contradictory natures of the two norms at issue, amongst others, prevented a lasting change in the normative hierarchy between freedom of expression and the protection of religion.


United Nations Western State Muslim Country Hate Speech Terror Attack 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Peace Research Institute Frankfurt (PRIF)Frankfurt am MainGermany

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