Advertisement

Migraine Comorbidities

  • Frederick A. GodleyIIIEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years there has been a strong interest in the potential effect of migraine disease on other illnesses. Our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of migraine disease that may underlie nonheadache symptoms and syndromes is currently marked by a long list of comorbid disorders. The connection of migraine to other conditions is at various levels of explanation, ranging from some intriguing clinical observations to accepted criteria as a migraine subtype. This is a snapshot of the level of current knowledge of migraine comorbidities and the significance of this information, but the complexity of this subject will be a challenge for a generation of clinicians and scientists.

Keywords

Migraine Comorbidity Auras Brainstem Pathophysiology Central sensitization Sex hormones Headache 

References

  1. 1.
    Antonaci F, Nappi G, Galli F, et al. Migraine and psychiatric comorbidity: a review of clinical findings. J Headache Pain. 2011;12(2):115–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saunders K, Merikangas K, Low NCP, et al. Impact of comorbidity on headache-related disability. Neurology. 2008;70:538–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Cuvellier JC, Lepine A. Childhood periodic syndromes. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;42:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cuenca-Leon E, Corominas R, Fernandez-Castillo N, Volpini V, Del Toro M, Roig M, et al. Genetic analysis of 27 Spanish patients with hemiplegic migraine, basilar-type migraine and childhood periodic syndromes. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:1039–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Titomanlio L, Bargui F, Gibertini GG, Siriez JY, Mercier JC. Quest for the diagnosis. Case 2: a child with abnormal ocular movements. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1097–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carson L, Lewis D, Tsou M, McGuire E, Surran B, Miller C, Vu TA. Abdominal migraine: an under-diagnosed cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Headache. 2011;51:707–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cuomo-Granston A, Drummond PD. Migraine and motion sickness: what is the link? Prog Neurobiol. 2010;91:300–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prakash S, Shah ND, Dholakia SY. Recurrent limb pain and migraine: case reports and a clinical review. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:898–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arruda MA, Guidetti V, Galli F, Albuquerque RC, Bigal ME. Childhood periodic syndromes: a population-based study. Pediatr Neurol. 2010;43:420–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vukovic V, Plavec D, Galinovic I, Lovrencic-Huzjan A, Budisic M, Demarin V. Prevalence of vertigo, dizziness, and migrainous vertigo in patients with migraine. Headache. 2007;47(10):1427–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cha YH, Lee H, Santell LS, Baloh RW. Association of benign recurrent vertigo and migraine in 208 patients. Cephalalgia. 2009;29(5):550–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Slater R. Benign recurrent vertigo. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1979;42:363–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moretti G, Manzoni GC, Caffarra P, Parma M. ‘Benign recurrent vertigo’ and its connection with migraine. Headache. 1980;20:344–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kayan A, Hood JD. Neuro-otological manifestations of migraine. Brain. 1984;107:1123–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Von Brevern M, Neuhauser H. Epidemiological evidence for a link between vertigo and migraine. J Vestibul Res. 2011;21(6):299–304.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Langhagen T, Lehnen N, Krause E, et al. Vertigo in children and adolescents. Part 1: epidemiology and diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders. HNO. 2013;61(9):791–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Calhoun A, Ford S, Pruitt AP, et al. The point prevalence of dizziness or vertigo in migraine—and factors that influence presentation. Headache. 2011;51:1388–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ramadan NM. Epidemiology and impact of migraine. Continuum. 2003;9:9–24.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lempert T, Neuhauser H. Epidemiology of vertigo, migraine and vestibular vertigo. J Neurol. 2009;256:333–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Neuhauser H, Lempert T. Vestibular migraine. Neurol Clin. 2009;27(2):379–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cohen JM, Bigal ME, Newman LC. Migraine and vestibular symptoms—identifying clinical features that predict “vestibular migraine”. Headache. 2011;51(9):1393–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dieterich M, Obermann M, Celebisoy N. Vestibular migraine: the most frequent entity of episodic vertigo. J Neurol. 2016;263(Suppl. 1):82–9.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Geser R, Straumann D. Referral and final diagnoses of patients assessed in an academic vertigo center. Front Neurol. 2012;3:169.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Millen SJ, Schnurr CM, Schnurr BB. Vestibular migraine: perspectives of otology versus neurology. Otol Neurotol. 2011;32(2):330–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Ombergen A, Van Rompaey V, et al. Vestibular migraine in an otolaryngology clinic: prevalence, associated symptoms and prophylactic medication effectiveness. Otol Neurotol. 2015;36(1):133–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bikhazi P, Jackson C, Ruckenstein MJ. Efficacy of antimigrainous therapy in the treatment of migraine-associated dizziness. Am J Otol. 1997;18:350–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fasunla AJ, Ibekwe TS, Nwaorgu OG. Migraine-associated vertigo: a review of the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122(3):107–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ahn SK, Balaban CD. Distribution of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in the inner ear. Brain Res. 2010;1346:92–101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cutrer FM, Baloh RW. Migraine-associated dizziness. Headache. 1992;32:300–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shin JH, Kim YK, et al. Altered brain metabolism in vestibular migraine: comparison of interictal and ictal findings. Cephalalgia. 2014;34(1):58–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ophoff RA, Terwindt GM, Vergouwe MN, van Eijk R, Oefner PJ, Hofman SM, et al. Familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia type-2 are caused by mutations in the Ca2+ channel gene CACNL1A4. Cell. 1996;87:543–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Furman JM, Whitney SL. Central causes of dizziness. Phys Ther. 2000;80:179–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Halmagyi GM, Aw ST, Karlberg M, Curthoys IS, Todd MJ. Inferior vestibular neuritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;956:306–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Barabas G, Matthews WS, Ferrari M. Childhood migraine and motion sickness. Pediatrics. 1983;72:188–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marcus DA, Furman JM, Balaban CD. Motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6:2691–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Adeney KL, Flores JL, Perez JC, Sanchez SE, Williams MA. Prevalence and correlates of migraine among women attending a prenatal care clinic in Lima. Peru Cephalalgia. 2006;26:1089–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drummond PD. Motion sickness and migraine: optokinetic stimulation increases scalp tenderness, pain sensitivity in the fingers and photophobia. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:117–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache. 2005;45:653–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cha YH, Cui Y. Rocking dizziness and headache: a two-way street. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(14):1160–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Akdal G, Baykan B, Ertaş M, et al. Population-based study of vestibular symptoms in migraineurs. Acta Otolaryngol. 2015;135(5):435–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lindskog U, Odkvist L, Noaksson L, Wallquist J. Benign paroxysmal vertigo in childhood: a long-term follow-up. Headache. 1999;39:33–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marcelli V, Piazza F, Pisani F, Marciano E. Neuro-otological features of benign paroxysmal vertigo and benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo in children: a follow-up study. Brain Dev. 2006;28:80–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Oh AK, Lee H, Jen JC, et al. Familial benign recurrent vertigo. Am J Med Genet. 2001;100(4):287–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Roberts RA, Gans RE, Kastner AH. Differentiation of migrainous positional vertigo (MPV) from horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV). Int J Audiol. 2006;45(4):224–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ishiyama A, Jacobson KM, Baloh RW. Migraine and benign positional vertigo. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2000;109:377–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lanzi G, Balottin U, Fazzi E, Tagliasacchi M, Manfrin M, Mira E. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood: a long-term follow-up. Cephalalgia. 1994;14:458–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Radtke A, Lempert T, et al. Migraine and Meniere’s disease: is there a link? Neurology. 2002;59(11):1700–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Silberstein SD, Saper JR, Freitag FG. Migraine: diagnosis and treatment. In: Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dalessio DJ, editors. Wolff’s headache and other head pain. 7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2001. p. 121–237.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fabijanska A, Rogowski M, Bartnik G, Skarzynski H. Epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in Poland. In: Hazell JWP, editor. Proceedings of the sixth international tinnitus seminar. London: The Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre; 1999. p. 569–71.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Andersson G, Lindvall N, Hursti T, Carlbring P. Hypersensitivity to sound (hyperacusis): a prevalence study conducted via the Internet and post. Int J Audiol. 2002;41:545–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Baguley DM. Hyperacusis. J R Soc Med. 2003;96(12):582–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vingen JV, Pareja JA, Storen O, et al. Phonophobia in migraine. Cephalalgia. 1998;18(5):243–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sood SK, Coles RRA. Hyperacusis and phonophobia in tinnitus patients. Br J Audiol. 1998;22:228.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bartnik G, Fabijanska A, Rogowski M. Our experience in treatment of patients with tinnitus and/or hyperacusis using the habituation method. In: Hazell JWP, editor. Proceedings of the sixth international tinnitus seminar. London: The Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Centre; 1999. p. 416–7.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jastreboff PJ, Jastreboff MM. Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients. J Am Acad Audiol. 2000;11:162–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Anari M, Axelsson A, Eliasson A, Magnusson L. Hypersensitivity to sound. Questionnaire data, audiometry and classification. Scand Audiol. 1999;28:219–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moller AR. Similarities between chronic pain and tinnitus. Am J Otol. 1997;18:577–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Andersson G, Vretblad P, Larsen HC, Lyttkens L. Longitudinal follow-up of tinnitus complaints. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127:175–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dobie R. Overview: suffering from tinnitus. In: Snow Jr JB, editor. Tinnitus: theory and management. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker; 2004. p. 1–7.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Roland LT, Lenze EJ, Hardin FM, Kallogjeri D, Nicklaus J, Wineland AM, et al. Effects of mindfulness on subjective bother and neural connectivity in chronic tinnitus. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;152(5):919–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
    Ciriaco A, Russo A, Monzani D, Genovese E, Benincasa P, Caffo E, Pini L. A preliminary study on the relationship between central auditory processing and childhood primary headaches in the intercritical phase. J Headache Pain. 2013;14:69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Agess LM, Villa TR, Dias KZ, et al. Central auditory processing and migraine: a controlled study. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vincent MB, Hadjikhani N. Migraine aura and related phenomena: beyond scotomata and scintillations. Cephalalgia. 2007;27(12):1368–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chung KT. An unusual presentation of migraine: temporary complete body paralysis and aphasia. BMJ Case Rep. 2012.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lyngberg AC, Rasmussen BK, Jorgensen T, Jensen R. Incidence of primary headache: a Danish epidemiologic follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161(11):1066–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Breslau N, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Schultz LR, Welch KM. Comorbidity of migraine and depression: investigating potential etiology and prognosis. Neurology. 2003;60:1308–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Swartz KL, Pratt LA, Armenian HK, et al. Mental disorders and the incidence of migraine headaches in a community sample: results from the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(10):945–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gelaye B, Peterlin BL, Lemma S, et al. Migraine and psychiatric comorbidities among sub-Saharan African adults. Headache. 2013;53(2):310–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ashina S, Serrano D, Lipton RB, et al. Depression and risk of transformation of episodic to chronic migraine. J Headache Pain. 2012;13(8):615–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rist PM, Schurks M, Buring JE, et al. Migraine, headache and the risk of depression: prospective cohort study. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(12):1017–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Adams AM, Serrano D, Lipton R, et al. The impact of chronic migraine: the chronic migraine epidemiology and outcomes (CaMEO) study methods and baseline results. Cephalalgia. 2015;35:563–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Torelli P, Lambru G, Manzoni GC. Psychiatric comorbidity and headache: clinical and therapeutical aspects. Neurol Sci. 2006;27(Suppl. 2):S73–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lampl C, Thomas H, Tassorelli C, et al. Headache, depression and anxiety: associations in the Eurolight project. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zwart JA, Dyb G, Hagen K, et al. Depression and anxiety disorders associated with headache frequency. The Nord-Trøndelag health study. Eur J Neurol. 2003;10(2):147–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Witkin JM, Baez M, Yu J, Barton ME, Shannon HE. Constitutive deletion of the serotonin-7 (5-HT(7)) receptor decreases electrical and chemical seizure thresholds. Epilepsy Res. 2007;75(1):39–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Giffin NJ, Kaube H. The electrophysiology of migraine. Curr Opin Neurol. 2002;15(3):303–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jacobs H, Gladstein J. Pediatric headache: a clinical review. Headache. 2012;52:333–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Breslau N, Davis GC, Andreski P. Migraine, psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts: an epidemiologic study of young adults. Psychiatry Res. 1991;37(1):11–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fuller-Thomson E, Schrumm M, Brennensthul S. Migraine and despair: factors associated with depression and suicidal ideation among canadian migraineurs in a population-based study. Depress Res Treat. 2013;2013:10 Article ID 401487.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Juang KD, et al. Migraine and suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 13–15 years. Neurology. 2009;72:1148–52.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Freidman LE, Gelaye B, Rondon MB, et al. Association of migraine headaches with suicidal ideation among pregnant women in Lima. Peru Headache. 2016;56:741–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Williams MA, Aurora SK, Frederick IO, Qiu C, Gelaye B, Cripe SM. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion and perceived stress among pregnant migraineurs and non-migraineurs. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010;10:72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Calhoun AH, Ford S, Finkel AG, Kahn KA, Mann JD. The prevalence and spectrum of sleep problems in women with transformed migraine. Headache. 2006;46(4):604–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kelman L, Rains JC. Headache and sleep: examination of sleep patterns and complaints in a large clinical sample of migraineurs. Headache. 2005;45:904–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Alberti A. Headache and sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2006;10:431–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rains JC, Poceta JS. Headache and sleep disorders: review and clinical implications for headache management. Headache. 2006;46:1344–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brun J, Claustrat B, Saddier P, Chazot G. Nocturnal melatonin excretion is decreased in patients with migraine without aura attacks associated with menses. Cephalalgia. 1995;15:136–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Leone M, D’Amico D, Moschiano F, Fraschini F, Bussone G. Melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a double-blind pilot study with parallel groups. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:494–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Melhado EM, Maciel JA, Guerreiro CA. Headache during gestation: evaluation of 1101 women. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007;34:187–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nezvalova-Henriksen K, Spigset O, Nordeng H. Maternal characteristics and migraine pharmacotherapy during pregnancy: cross-sectional analysis of data from a large cohort study. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:1267–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dodick DW, Eross EJ, Parish JM. Clinical, anatomical, and physiologic relationship between sleep and headache. Headache. 2003;43(3):282–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sancisi E, Cevoli S, Vignatelli L, et al. Increased prevalence of sleep disorders in chronic headache: a case-control study. Headache. 2010;50(9):1464–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chen PK, Fuh JL, Chen SP, et al. Association between restless legs syndrome and migraine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:524–8 (Migraine with RLS is associated with higher rates of photophobia, phonophobia, tinnitus, dizziness, neck pain and TMJ. More migraine symptoms lead to worsening quality of life).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rhode AM, Hosing VG, Happe S, et al. Comorbidity of migraine and restless legs syndrome—a case-control study. Cephalalgia. 2007;27(11):1255–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    D’Onofrio F, Bussone G, Cologno D, et al. Restless legs syndrome and primary headaches: a clinical study. Neurol Sci. 2008;29(Suppl. 1):S169–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cannon PR, Lamer AJ. Migraine and restless legs syndrome: is there an association? J Headache Pain. 2011;12(4):405–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sabayan B, Bagheri M, Haghighi AB. Possible joint origin of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and migraine. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69:64–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Phelps CD, Corbett JJ. Migraine and low-tension glaucoma. A case-control study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985;26:1105–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zanchin G, Dainese F, Trucco M, et al. Osmophobia in migraine and tension-type headache and its clinical features in patients with migraine. Cephalalgia. 2007;27(9):1061–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    De Carlo D, Dal Zotto L, Perissinotto E, Gallo L, Gatta M, Balottin U, et al. Osmophobia in migraine classification: a multicentre study in juvenile patients. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:1486–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Coleman ER, Grosberg BM, Robbins MS. Olfactory hallucinations in primary headache disorders: case series and literature review. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1477–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Levy LM, Henkin RI. Brain gamma-aminobutyric acid reflux disease levels are decreased in patients with phantageusia and phantosmia demonstrated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Comput Assit Tomogr. 2004;28(6):721–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Henkin RI, Potolicchio SJ, Levy ML. Olfactory hallucinations without clinical motor activity: a comparison of unirhinal with birhinal phantosmia. Brain Sci. 2013;3(4):1483–553.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jaaskelainen SK. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123(1):71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lauria G, Majorana A, Borgna M, Lombardi R, Penza P, Padovani A, et al. Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome. Pain. 2005;115(3):332–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Burstein R, Yarnitsky D, Goor-Aryeh I, et al. An association between migraine and cutaneous allodynia. Ann Neurol. 2000;47(5):614–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lipton RB, Bigal ME, Ahina S, et al. Cutaneous allodynia in the migraine population. AnnNeurol. 2008;63(2):148–58.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lovati C, D’Amico D, Bertora P. Allodynia in migraine: frequent random association or unavoidable consequence? Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9(3):395–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tietjen GE, Brandes JL, Peterlin BL, et al. Allodynia in migraine: association with comorbid pain conditions. Headache. 2009;49(9):1333–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lambru G, Miller S, Matharu MS. The red ear syndrome. J Headache Pain. 2013;14(1):83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Goadsby PJ, Lipton RB. A review of paroxysmal hemicranias, SUNCT syndrome and other short-lasting headaches with autonomic feature, including new cases. Brain. 1997;14(Pt. 1):193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lance JW. The red ear syndrome. Neurology. 1996;14(3):617–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Culp WJ, Ochoa J, Cline M, Dotson R. Heat and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by capsaicin. Cross modality threshold modulation in human C nociceptors. Brain. 1989;14(Pt. 5):1317–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Martin VT, Fanning KM, Serrano D, et al. Chronic rhinitis and its association with headache frequency and disability in persons with migraine: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study. Cephalalgia. 2014;34(5):336–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ku M, Silverman B, Prifti N, Ying W, Persaud Y, Schneider A. Prevalence of migraine headaches in patients with allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97(2):226–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Derebery J, Meltzer E, Nathan RA, Stang PE, Campbell UB, Carrao M, et al. Rhinitis symptoms and comorbities in the United States: Burden of rhinitis in America survey. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;139:198–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sarin S, Undem B, Sanico A, Togias A. The role of the nervous system in rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:999–1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ozturk A, Degirmenci Y, Tokmak B, Tokmak A. Frequency of migraine in patients with allergic rhinitis. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29(2):528–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Martin VT, Taylor F, Gebhardt B, Tomaszewski M, Ellison JS, Martin GV, et al. Allergy and immunotherapy: are they related to migraine headache? Headache. 2011;51:8–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Eross E, Dodick D, Eross M. The sinus, allergy and migraine study (SAMS). Headache. 2007;47(2):213–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Acute Rhinosinusitis. Clinical practice guidelines: criteria for rhinosinusitis, AAO-HNS Foundation; 2015.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Foroughipour M, Sharifian SMR, Shoeibi A, et al. Causes of headache in patients with a primary diagnosis of sinus headache. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268:1593–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Al-Hashel JY, Ahmed SF, Alroughani R, Goadsby PJ. Migraine misdiagnosis as a sinusitis, a delay that can last for many years. J Headache Pain. 2013;14(1):97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Senbil N, Yavuz Gurer YK, Uner C, et al. Sinusitis in children and adolescents with chronic or recurrent headache: a case-control study. J Headache Pain. 2008;9:33–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Abrass LJ, Chandra RK, Conley DB, Tan BK, Kern RC. Factors associated with computed tomography status in patients presenting with a history of chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011;1(3):178–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bhattacharyya N. Clinical and symptom criteria for the accurate diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(7 physical therapy 2 Suppl. 110):1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mehle ME, Kremer PS. Sinus CT scan findings in “sinus headache” migraineurs. Headache. 2008;48(1):67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Dadgarnia MH, Atighechi S, Baradaranfar MH. The response to sodium valproate of patients with sinus headaches with normal endoscopic and CT findings. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267(3):375–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schreiber CP, Hutchinson S, Webster CJ, et al. Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self-reported or physician-diagnosed “sinus” headache. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1769–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Cauna N. Electron microscopy of the nasal vascular bed and its nerve supply. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1970;79:443–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Goncalves DA, Bigal ME, Jales LC, Camparis CM, Speciali JG. Headache and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder: an epidemiological study. Headache. 2010;50(2):231–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dahan H, Shir Y, Nicolau B, Keith D, Allison P. Self-reported migraine and chronic fatigue syndrome are more prevalent in people with myofascial vs nonmyofascial temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2016;30(1):7–13 Winter.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nixdorf DR, Velly AM, Alonso AA. Neurovascular pains: implications of migraine for the oral & maxillofacial surgeon. 2008;20(2):221–45.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Goel R, Kumar S, Panwar A, et al. Pontine infarct presenting with atypical dental pain: a case report. Open Dent J. 2015;9:337–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Global year against Orofacial pain 2013—the international association for the study of pain.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lin KH, Chen YT, Fuh JL, et al. Increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with migraine: a nationwide population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2015 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lendvai D, Verdecchia P, Crenca R, Redondi A, Braccili T, Turri E, et al. Fever: a novelty among the symptoms accompanying migraine attacks in children. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 1999;3(5):229–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Obermann M, Yoon MS, Dommes P, et al. Prevalence of trigeminal autonomic symptoms in migraine: a population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2007;27:504–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Elsheikh MN, Badran HM. Dysautonomia rhinitis: associated otolaryngologic manifestations and characterization based on autonomic function tests. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:1206–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Aurora SK, Papapetropoulos S, Kori SH, et al. Gastric stasis in migraineurs: etiology, characteristics, and clinical and therapeutic implications. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(6):408–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Liu AM, Liu JG, Liu GW, et al. “Alice in wonderland” syndrome: presenting and follow-up characteristics. Pediatr Neurol. 2014;51(3):317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hamed SA. A migraine variant with abdominal colic and Alice in wonderland syndrome: a case report and review. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rastogi RG, VanderPluym J, Lewis KS. Migrainous Aura, visual snow, and “Alice in wonderland” syndrome in childhood. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2016;23(1):14–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Rothner AD, Parikh S. Migraine variants or episodic syndromes that may be associated with migraine and other unusual pediatric headache syndromes. Headache. 2016;56(1):206–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Valença MM, de Oliveira DA, Martins HA. Alice in wonderland syndrome, burning mouth syndrome, cold stimulus headache, and HaNDL: narrative review. Headache. 2015;55(9):1233–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Calandre EP, Bembibre J, Arnedo ML, Becerra D. Cognitive disturbances and regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in migraine patients: their relationship with the clinical manifestations of the illness. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:291–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hooker WD, Raskin NH. Neuropsychologic alterations in classic and common migraine. Arch Neurol. 1986;43:709–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
  151. 151.
    Buse DC, Rupnow MF, Lipton RB. Assessing and managing all aspects of migraine: migraine attacks, migraine-related functional impairment, common comorbidities, and quality of life. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;84(5):422–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Jong E, Oudhoffc LA, Epskamp C, Wagenerd MN, van Duijne M, Fischerg S, et al. Predictors and treatment strategies of HIV-related fatigue in the combined antiretroviral therapy era. AIDS. 2010;24(10):1387–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Patarca-Montero R, Antoni M, Fletcher MA, Klimas NG. Cytokine and other immunologic markers in chronic fatigue syndrome and their relation to neuropsychological factors. Appl Neuropsychol. 2001;8:51–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    McKay PG, Duffy T, Martin CR. Are chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia the same? Implications for the provision of appropriate mental health intervention. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2009;16:884–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Williams MA, Aurora SK, Frederick IO, Qiu C, Gelaye B, Cripe SM. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion and perceived stress among pregnant migraineurs and non-migraineurs. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010;10:72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Baars MA, van Boxtel MP, Jolles J. Migraine does not affect cognitive decline: results from the Maastricht aging study. Headache. 2010;50:176–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Schmitz N, Arkink EB, Mulder M, et al. Frontal lobe structure and executive function in migraine patients. Neurosci Lett. 2008;440:92–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rajapakse T, Buchhalter J. The borderland of migraine and epilepsy in children. Headache. 2016;56(6):1071–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sowell MK, Youssef PE. The comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy in children and adolescents. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2016;23(1):83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Verrotti A, Striano P, Belcastro V, Matricardi S, Villa MP, Parisi P. Migralepsy and related conditions: advances in pathophysiology and classification. Seizure. 2011;20(4):271–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Vinjam M, Newby R, Davey R. A mitochondrial malady: stubborn seizures and atypical migraine. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2015;45(4):281–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Tsuji S. Migraine and epilepsy. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2014;54(12):1003–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Spritzer SD, Bravo TP, Drazkowski JF. Topiramate for treatment in patients with migraine and epilepsy. Headache. 2016 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Gordon K, Dooley JM, Wood EP. Is migraine a risk factor for the development of concussion? Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(2):184–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Gessel LM, Fields SK, Collins CL, Dick RW, Comstock RD. Concussions among United States high school and collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. 2007;42(4):495–503.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mayer CL, Huber BR, Peskind E. Traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation, and post-traumatic headaches. Headache. 2013;53(9):1523–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lucas S. Headache management in concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. PMR. 2011;3(10 Suppl. 2):S406–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lau BC, Collins MW, Lovell MR. Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(6):1209–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lau B, Lovell MR, Collins MW, Pardini J. Neurocognitive and symptom predictors of recovery in high school athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(3):216–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Mihalik JP, Stump JE, Collins MW, et al. Posttraumatic migraine characteristics in athletes following sports-related concussion. J Neurosurg. 2005;102(5):850–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sandel N, Johnson E, Pardini J, et al. C-31 gender and history of migraine do not modify performance on computer-based neurocognitive testing at baseline or post-concussion. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2014;29(6):584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Solomon S. Posttraumatic migraine. Headache. 1998;38:772–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Neinstein L, Milgrom E. Trauma-triggered migraine and acute confusional migraine. J Adolesc Health. 2000;27:119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Scopaz KA, Hatzenbuehler JR. Risk modifiers for concussion and prolonged recovery. Sports Health. 2013;5(6):537–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lords Q, Greene JP. Traumatic migraine versus concussion: a case report. Sports Health. 2014;6(5):406–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Block ML, Zecca L, Hong JS. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007;8:57–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Packard RC, Ham LP. Pathogenesis of posttraumatic headache and migraine: a common headache pathway? Headache. 1997;37:142–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sofroniew MV, Vinters HV. Astrocytes: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;119:7–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ricci G, Volpi L, Pasquali L, Petrozzi L, Siciliano G. Astrocyteneuron interactions in neurological disorders. J Biol Phys. 2009;35:317–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Migraine Charles A. A brain state. Curr Opin Neurol. 2013;26:235–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(1):26–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ifergane G, Buskila D, Simiseshvely N, Zeev K, Cohen H. Prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in migraine patients. Cephalalgia. 2005;26:451–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    de Tommaso M, Sardaro M, Serpino C, et al. Fibromyalgia comorbidity in primary headaches. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:453–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Marcus DA, Bernstein C, Rudy TE. Fibromyalgia and headache: an epidemiological study supporting migraine as part of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24:595–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Nicolodi M, Volpe AR, Sicuteri F. Fibromyalgia and headache. failure of serotonergic analgesia and N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated neuronal plasticity: their common clues. Cephalalgia. 1998;18(Suppl. 21):41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Peterson J. Understanding fibromyalgia and its treatment options. Nurse Pract. 2005;30:48–55 quiz 46–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Abeles AM, Pillinger MH, Solitar BM, Abeles M. Narrative review: the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:726–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Staud R, Rodriguez ME. Mechanisms of disease: pain in fibromyalgia syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006;2:90–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Pujol J, López-Solà M, Ortiz H, et al. Mapping brain response to pain in fibromyalgia patients using temporal analysis of FMRI. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5224.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    de Tommaso M. Laser-evoked potentials in primary headaches and cranial neuralgias. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008;8:1339–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Nicolodi M, Sicuteri F. Fibromyalgia and migraine, two faces of the same mechanism. Serotonin as the common clue for pathogenesis and therapy. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;398:373–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Peterlin BL, Rosso AL, Nair S, et al. Migraine may be a risk factor for the development of complex regional pain syndrome. Cephalalgia. 2010;30(2):214–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Dale RC, Gardiner A, Antony J, Houlden H. Familial PRRT2 mutation with heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders including paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54(10):958–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Méneret A, Gaudebout C, Riant F, Vidailhet M, Depienne C, Roze E. PRRT2 mutations and paroxysmal disorders. Eur J Neurol. 2013;20(6):872–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Vila-Pueyo M, Gené GG, Flotats-Bastardes M. A loss-of-function CACNA1A mutation causing benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2014;18(3):430–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kuiper M, Hendrikx S, Koehler PJ. Headache and tremor: co-occurrences and possible associations. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2015;5:285.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Hu Y, Tang W, Liu R, Dong Z, Chen X, Pan M, Yu S. Higher prevalence of migraine in essential tremor: a case-control study. Cephalalgia. 2014;34(14):1142–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Greiner KA. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: radiologic decision-making. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65(9):1817–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Burwell RG. Aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis: current concepts. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003;6(3–4):137–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Stang PE, Carson AP, Rose KM, et al. Headache, cerebrovascular symptoms, and stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Neurology. 2005;64(9):1573–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Scher AI, Gudmundsson LS, Sigurdsson S, et al. Migraine headache in middle age and late-life brain infarcts. JAMA. 2009;301(24):2563–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kurth T, Diener HC. Current views of the risk of stroke for migraine with and migraine without aura. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2006;10(3):214–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Secil Y, Unde C, Beckmann YY, et al. Blood pressure changes in migraine patients before, during and after migraine attacks. Pain Pract. 2010;10(3):222–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Rose KM, Wong TY, Carson AP, et al. Migraine and retinal microvascular abnormalities: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Neurology. 2007;68(20):1694–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Zahavi I, Chagnac A, Hering R, Davidovich S, Kuritzky A. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in patients with migraine. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144(4):742–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Bernatsky S, Pineau CA, Lee JL, Clarke AE. Headache, Raynaud’s syndrome and serotonin receptor agonists in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2006;15(10):671–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Scantlebury DC, Prasad A, Rabinstein AA, Best PJ. Prevalence of migraine and Raynaud phenomenon in women with apical ballooning syndrome (Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy). Am J Cardiol. 2013;111(9):1284–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Takats AT, Shemirani AH, Zsori KS, et al. Prothrombotic polymorphisms in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon and migraine. Acta Physiol Hung. 2012;99(4):430–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Rigatelli G. Migraine and patent foramen ovale: connecting flight or one-way ticket? Expert Rev Neurother. 2008;8:1331–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Reisman M, Christofferson RD, Jesurum J, Olsen JV, Spencer MP, Krabill KA, Diehl L, Aurora S, Gray WA. Migraine headache relief after transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:493–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Hildick-Smith D. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in migraine with aura (PRIMA). Presented at Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics. Washington DC, United States; 2014.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Tarantini G, D’Amico G, Bettella N, Mojoli M, Rigatelli G. Patent foramen ovale closure and migraine time course: Clues for positive interaction. Int J Cardiol. 2015;195:235–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Jesurum JT, Fuller CJ, Kim CJ, Krabill KA, Spencer MP, Olsen JV, Likosky WH, Reisman M. Frequency of migraine headache relief following patent foramen ovale “closure” despite residual right-to-left shunt. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:916–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Hajra A, Bandyopadhyay D. Patent foramen ovale and migraine: casual or causal. N Am J Med Sci. 2016;8(3):169–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Sathasivam S, Sathasivam S. Patent foramen ovale and migraine: what is the relationship between the two? J Cardiol. 2013;61:256–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Gupta VK. Patent foramen ovale closure and migraine: science and sensibility. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010;10(9):1409–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Finocchi C, Del Sette M. Migraine with aura and patent foramen ovale: myth or reality? Neurol Sci. 2015;36(Suppl 1):61–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Dowson A, Mullen MJ, Peatfield R, Muir K, Khan AA, Wells C, et al. Migraine intervention with STARFlex Technology (MIST) trial: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, sham-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of patent foramen ovale closure with STARFlex septal repair implant to resolve refractory migraine headache. Circulation. 2008;117:1397–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Diener HC, Kurth T, Dodick D. Patent foramen ovale, stroke, and cardiovascular disease in migraine. Curr Opin Neurol. 2007;20(3):310–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Domitrz I, Styczynski G, Wilczko J, et al. An association between migraines and heart anomalies-true or false? A heart ultrasound study using cTTE in migraine patients and control participants. Pain Med. 2014;15(12):2156–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Hindiyeh N, Aurora SK. What the gut can teach us about migraine. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2015;19(7):33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Lipton RB, Buse DC, Saiers J, et al. Frequency and burden of headache—related nausea: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study. Headache. 2013;53:93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Kim BK, Chung YK, Jim JM, et al. Prevalence, clinical characteristics and disability of migraine and probable migraine: A nationwide population-based survey in Korea. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:110–1116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Kim BS, Chung CS, Lee CB, et al. Migraineurs initially visiting the gastroenterology department. Headache. 2016;56:555–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Kelman L, Tanis D. The relationship between migraine pain and other associated symptoms. Cephalagia. 2006;26:548–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Mulak A, Paradowski L. Migraine and irritable bowel syndrome. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2005;39(4 Suppl. 1):S55–60 [Article in Polish].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Grover M, Camilleri M. Effects on gastrointestinal functions and symptoms of serotonergic psychoactive agents used in functional gastrointestinal diseases. J Gastroenterol. 2013;48(2):177–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Li BU, Balint JP. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: evolution in our understanding of a brain-gut disorder. Adv Pediatr. 2000;47:117–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kaul A, Kaul KK. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: a functional disorder. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2015;18(4):224–9 Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2015;19(7):33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Abell TL, Adams KA, Boles RG, Bousvaros A, Chong SK, Fleisher DR, Hasler WL, Hyman PE, Issenman RM, Li BU, Linder SL, Mayer EA, McCallum RW, Olden K, Parkman HP, Rudolph CD, Tache Y, Tarbell S, Vakil N. Cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:269–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Tache Y. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: the corticotropin-releasing-factor hypothesis. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44:79S–86S. doi: 10.1023/A:1026602216846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Li BU, Lefevre F, Chelimsky GG, Boles RG, Nelson SP, Lewis DW, Linder SL, Issenman RM, Rudolph CD. North American Society for pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition consensus statement on the diagnosis and management of cyclic vomiting syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47:379–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    El-Serag HB, Talley NJ. Systematic review: the prevalence and clinical course of functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;19:643–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Soykan I, Sivri B, Sarosiek I, et al. Demography, clinical characteristics, psychological and abuse profiles, treatment, and long term follow-up of patients with gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 1998;43:2398–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Lacy BE. Functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. one disease or two? Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(11):1615–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Parkman HP, Hasler WL, Fisher RS. American gastroenterological association technical review on the diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:1592–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Punkkinen J, Farkkila M, Matzke S, et al. Upper abdominal symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes: unrelated to impairment in gastric emptying caused by autonomic neuropathy. Diabet Med. 2008;25:570–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Abell TL, Bernstein RK, Cutts T, et al. Treatment of gastroparesis: a multidisciplinary clinical review. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:263–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Parkman HP. Migraine and gastroparesis from a gastroenterologist’s perspective. Headache. 2013;53(Suppl. 1):4–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Aurora SK, Papapetropoulos S, Kori SH, et al. Gastric stasis in migraineurs: etiology, characteristics, and clinical and therapeutic implications. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(6):408–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Newman LC. Why triptan treatment can fail: focus on gastrointestinal manifestations of migraine. Headache. 2013;53(Suppl 1):11–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Kim BS, Chung CS, Lee CB, et al. Migraineurs initially visiting the gastroenterology department. Headache. 2016;56:555–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Kakisaka Y, Ohara T, Hino-Fukuyo N, et al. Abdominal and lower back pain in pediatric idiopathic stabbing headache. Pediatrics. 2014;133(1):e245–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Romanello S, Spiri D, Marcuzzi E, Zanin A, Boizeau P, Riviere S, et al. Association between childhood migraine and history of infantile colic. JAMA. 2013;309(15):1607–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Jan MM, Al-Buhairi AR. Is infantile colic a migraine-related phenomenon? Clin Pediatr. 2001;40:295–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Gelfand AA, Thomas KC, Goadsby PJ. Before the headache: infant colic as an early life expression of migraine. Neurology. 2012;79(13):1392–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Gelfand AA, Goadsby PJ, Allen IE. The relationship between migraine and infant colic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cephalalgia. 2015;35(1):63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Williams MA, Peterlin BL, Gelaye B, Enquobahrie DA, Miller RS, Aurora SK. Trimester-specific blood pressure levels and hypertensive disorders among pregnant migraineurs. Headache. 2011;51:1468–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Simbar M, Karimian Z, Afrakhteh M, Akbarzadeh A, Kouchaki E. Increased risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) among women with the history of migraine. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010;32:159–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Blair EM, Nelson KB. Migraine and preterm birth. J Perinatol. 2011;31:434–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Sanchez SE, Williams MA, Pacora PN, Ananth CV, Qiu C, Aurora SK, Sorensen TK. Risk of placental abruption in relation to migraines and headaches. BMC Womens Health. 2010;10:30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Karp BI, Sinaii N, Nieman LK, Silberstein SD, et al. Migraine in women with chronic pelvic pain with and without endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(3):895–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Chung KH, Liu SP, Lin HC, Chung SD. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with anxiety disorder. Neurourol Urodyn. 2014;33(1):101–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Chelimsky G, Heller E, Buffington CA, Rackley R, Zhang D, Chelimsky T. Co-morbidities of interstitial cystitis. Front Neurosci. 2012;6:114.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Vehof J, Zavos HM, Lachance G, Hammond CJ, Williams FM. Shared genetic factors underlie chronic pain syndromes. Pain. 2014;155(8):1562–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Harlow BL, Stewart EG. A population-based assessment of chronic unexplained vulvar pain: have we underestimated the prevalence of vulvodynia? J Am Med Wom Assoc. 2003;58:82–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Reed BD, Harlow SD, Sen A, Edwards RM, Chen D, Haefner HK. Relationship between vulvodynia and chronic comorbid pain conditions. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(1):145–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    White KP, Speechley M, Harth M, Ostbye T. The London fibromyalgia epidemiology study: the prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in London, Ontario. J Rheumatol. 1999;26:1570–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Parsons CL, Dell J, Stanford EJ, Bullen M, Kahn BS, Waxell T, et al. Increased prevalence of interstitial cystitis: previously unrecognized urologic and gynecologic cases identified using a new symptom questionnaire and intravesical potassium sensitivity. Urology. 2002;60:573–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Zondervan KT, Yudkin PL, Vessey MP, Jenkinson CP, Dawes MG, Barlow DH, et al. Chronic pelvic pain in the community–symptoms, investigations, and diagnoses. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:1149–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education. Relieving pain in America: a blueprint for transforming prevention, care, education, and research. Institute of Medicine; 2011.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Hampson JP, Reed BD, Clauw DJ, Bhavsar R, Gracely RH, Haefner HK, Harris RE. Augmented central pain processing in vulvodynia. J Pain. 2013;14(6):579–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Balaban CD, Jacob RG, Furman JM. Neurologic bases for comorbidity of balance disorders, anxiety disorders and migraine: neurotherapeutic implications. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11(3):379–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Dahan H, Shir Y, Velly A, Allison P. Specific and number of comorbidities are associated with increased levels of temporomandibular pain intensity and duration. J Headache Pain. 2015;16:528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Samuels ER, Szabadi E. Functional neuroanatomy of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus: its roles in the regulation of arousal and autonomic function part I: principles of functional organisation. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2008;6(3):235–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Michelsen KA, Prickaerts J, Steinbusch HW. The dorsal raphe nucleus and serotonin: implications for neuroplasticity linked to major depression and Alzheimer’s disease. Prog Brain Res. 2008;172:233–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Travagli RA. The nucleus tractus solitarius: an integrative centre with ‘task-matching’ capabilities. J Physiol. 2007;582(2):471.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Felizardo R, Boucher Y, Braud A, et al. Trigeminal projections on gustatory neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract: a double-label strategy using electrical stimulation of the chorda tympani and tracer injection in the lingual nerve. Brain Res. 2009;1288:60–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Mal RK, Birchall MA. Dysgeusia related to urinary obstruction from benign prostatic disease: a case control and qualitative study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005:178.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Maniyar FH, Sprenger T, Monteith T, Schankin C, Goadsby PJ. Brain activations in the premonitory phase of nitroglycerin-triggered migraine attacks. Brain. 2014;137:232–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Afridi SK, Giffin NJ, Kaube H, Friston KJ, Ward NS, Frackowiak RS, et al. A positron emission tomographic study in spontaneous migraine. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:1270–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Dinarello C, Cannon J, Wolff SM. New concepts on the pathogenesis of fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1988;10:168–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Suzuki A. Emotional functions of the insula. Brain Nerve. 2012;64(10):1103–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Marano E, Marcelli V, Di Stasio E, Bonuso S, Vacca G, Manganelli F, et al. Trigeminal stimulation elicits a peripheral vestibular imbalance in migraine patients. Headache. 2005;45(4):325–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Eising E, de Leeuw C, Min JL, Anttila V, Verheijen MH, Terwindt GM, et al. Involvement of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte gene sets in migraine. Cephalalgia. 2016;36(7):640–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Ducros A. Genetics of migraine. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2013;169(5):360–71 [Article in French].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Lantéri-Minet M, Desnuelle C. Migraine and mitochondrial dysfunction. Rev Neurol. 1996;152:234–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Montagna P, Cortell P, Barbiroli B. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in migraine. Cephalalgia. 1994;14:184–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Bigal ME, Gironda M, Tepper SJ, et al. Headache prevention outcome and body mass index. Cephalgia. 2006;26:445–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Rainero I, Limone P, Ferrero M, et al. Insulin sensitivity is impaired in patients with migraine. Cephalgia. 2005;25:593–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Scher AI, Terwindt GM, Picavet HS, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in migraine: the GEM population-based study. Neurology. 2005;19:683–92.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Lee ST, Chu K, Jung KH, et al. Decreased number and function of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with migraine. Neurology. 2008;70:1510–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Swartz RH, Kern RZ. Migraine is associated with magnetic resonance imaging white matter abnormalities: a meta-analysis. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(9):1366–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Aradi M, Schwarcz A, Perlaki G, et al. Quantitative MRI studies of chronic brain white matter hyperintensities in migraine patients. Headache. 2013;53(5):752–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Kurth T, Mohamed S, Maillard P, Zhu YC, Chabriat H, Mazoyer B, et al. Headache, migraine, and structural brain lesions and function: population based epidemiology of vascular ageing-MRI study. BMJ. 2011;342:c7357.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Erdélyi-Bótor S, Aradi M, Kamson DO, Kovács N, Perlaki G, Orsi G, et al. Changes of Migraine-Related White Matter Hyperintensities After 3 Years: A Longitudinal MRI Study. Headache J Head Face Pain. 2014 Oct 16;55(1):55–70. Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Palm-Meinders IH, Koppen H, Terwindt GM, Launer LJ, Konishi J, Moonen JM. Structural brain changes in migraine. JAMA. 2012;308(18):1889–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Erdelyi-Botor S, Aradi M, Kamson DO, Kovács N, Perlaki G, Orsi G, et al. Changes of migraine-related white matter hyperintensities after 3 years: a longitudinal MRI study. Headache. 2015;55(1):55–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Martin VT, Behbehani M. ovarian hormones and migraine headache: understanding mechanisms and pathogenesis—part I. Headache. 2006;46(1):3–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Gupta S, McCarson KE, Welch KM, Berman NE. Mechanisms of pain modulation by sex hormones in migraine. Headache. 2011;51(6):905–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Finocchi C, Ferrari M. Female reproductive steroids and neuronal excitability. Neurol Sci. 2011;32(Suppl. 1):S31–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Shyti R, deVries B, van den Maagdenberg A. Migraine genes and the relation to gender. Headache. 2011;51(6):880–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Sullivan A, Atkinson E, Cutrer F. Hormonally modulated migraine is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms within genes involved in dopamine metabolism. Open J Genet. 2013;3:38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Colson N, Fernandez F, Griffiths L. Genetic of menstrual migraine: the molecular evidence. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010;14:389–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Bolay H, Berman NE, Akcali D. Sex-related differences in animal models of migraine headache. Headache. 2011;51(6):891–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Peterlin BL, Gupta S, Ward TN, Macgregor A. Sex matters: evaluating sex and gender in migraine and headache research. Headache. 2011;51(6):839–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Charles A, Brennan KC. The neurobiology of migraine. Handb Clin Neurol. 2010;97:99–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University OtolaryngologyProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.North KingstownUSA

Personalised recommendations