Fusion of 3D-Echocardiography and Other Imaging Modalities: Hybrid Imaging

  • Eduardo Casas RojoEmail author
  • María Valverde Gómez


Cardiac hybrid imaging combines different imaging modalities to obtain a better approximation of real heart structures and function. In the last few years, the development of new imaging technologies and software products coupled with the growing of interventional cardiology, have favored the increasing popularity of the different types of cardiac fusion imaging. Many of them are focused on the merge of anatomical and functional aspects of the coronary artery disease. Examples of those are the combination of multidetector computed cardiac tomography (MDCT) and myocardial perfusion imaging (either with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)- or with positron emission tomography (PET), fusion of PET and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and fusion of MDCT and 3D speckle-tracking (3DST) rest and stress echocardiography. However there is another growing field in hybrid imaging related to cardiac interventional procedures such as closure of atrial septal defects and left atrial appendage, interventions on the mitral and aortic valve or electrophysiology techniques. Some of these interventions need dynamic imaging with both high-temporal and spatial image resolutions that any of the previous mentioned techniques can offer. Others can beneficiate from hybrid techniques combining MDCT and fluoroscopy. In this chapter, on one hand we are going to review the basis of hybrid techniques and combined methods for diagnosis including already validated modalities of fusion, the feasibility of stress protocols in the context of 3D echocardiography and the latest fusion of ultrasound and MDCT; and on the other hand, we will explore therapeutic guiding fusion of 3D transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) and fluoroscopy (the only dynamic fusion technique available) and its clinical applications.


Positron Emission Tomography Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Invasive Coronary Angiography Mitral Valve Repair Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiology DepartmentHospital Ramon y CajalMadridSpain

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