General Aspects of Transthoracic 3D-Echo

  • José-Julio Jiménez NácherEmail author
  • Gonzalo Alonso Salinas
  • Marina Pascual Izco


3D TTE has been one of the biggest advances in ultrasound technology. To obtain large volumes with adequate frame rate is the major challenge in 3D TTE. There are several methods of data acquisition in 3D TTE. To assess left ventricular function, it is better to choose full volume acquisition. To evaluate mitral or aortic valves, choose zoom acquisition. There are also various methods of 3D image display: slice rendering allows accurate measurements of chamber dimensions, valve areas and regurgitant jets. Cropping is very useful to remove anatomical structures to focus exclusively on the target anatomy. Apical four-chamber is the preferred view to 3D TTE left ventricle (LV) data acquisition. 3D TTE enables complete assessment of right ventricle (RV) geometry including the inflow, apex and outflow tract. 3D TTE may be superior to 2D TTE techniques diagnosing complex mitral valve disease. It enables “en face” visualization of the mitral valve from LV and LA perspectives. Parasternal long and short axis, apical and the subcostal views are the preferred to display the tricuspid valve (TV). 3D TTE aortic valve (AV) area measurement is more precise than the 2D TEE approach. 3DE short-axis view allows real AV orifice planimetry. 3D TTE has proved to be a useful tool in Congenital Heart disease (CHD) in three specific areas: improved understanding of the anatomy of the CHD, quantification of volumes and ventricular function, especially of the right ventricle and guiding therapeutic interventions.


3D transthoracic echocardiogram Image acquisition Image display 3D artifacts Heart anatomy 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • José-Julio Jiménez Nácher
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gonzalo Alonso Salinas
    • 1
  • Marina Pascual Izco
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiology DepartmentHospital Ramón y CajalMadridSpain

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