Experiments in Sound and Music Quantum Computing
This chapter is an introduction to quantum computing in sound and music. This is done through a series of examples of research applying quantum computing and principles to musical systems. By this process, the key elements that differentiate quantum physical systems from classical physical systems will be introduced and what this implies for computation, sound, and music. This will also allow an explanation of the two main types of quantum computers being utilized inside and outside of academia.
KeywordsVirtual Machine Quantum Computing Beam Splitter Quantum Computer CNOT Gate
Parts of this chapter were published previously in the International Journal of Unconventional Computation (Kirke and Miranda 2014). Peter Shadbolt of the Controlled Quantum Dynamics Group at Imperial College London provided much help with insight into Bell’s Theorem and CHSH, as well as Fig. 5.11. Figures 5.1–5.10 were provided by both Peter Shadbolt and Alex Neville of the Bristol Centre for Quantum Photonics. Daniel Lidar and his group provided much insight and support into using the D-Wave during the first author’s residency at USC Viterbi School of Engineering.
- Alice Matters. (2016). Scientists ‘sonify’ LHC data to Chamber Music, Alice Matters, October 30, 2014, http://alicematters.web.cern.ch/?q=content/node/776. Last accessed June 2, 2016.
- Brody, J. (1997). Background count for percussion and 2 channel electroacoustic. https://www.innova.mu/sites/www.innova.mu/files/liner-notes/314.htm. Last accessed September 10, 2016.
- Bian, Z., Chudak, F., Macready, W. G., & Rose, G. (2010). The Ising model: Teaching an old problem new tricks. Available on-line http://www.dwavesys.com/sites/default/files/weightedmaxsat_v2.pdf. Last accessed September 28, 2016.
- Coates, A., Huval, B., et al. (2013). Deep learning with COTS HPC systems. In Proceedings of the 30th international conference on machine learning, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Google Scholar
- Coleman, J. (2003). Music of the quantum. http://musicofthequantum.rutgers.edu/musicofthequantum.php. Last accessed September 10, 2016.
- Davidson, M. P. (2007). Stochastic models of quantum mechanics—a perspective. In AIP conference proceedings 889. Available on-line https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0610046.pdf. Last accessed September 30, 2016.
- Freund, S., & Mitchell, J. (1999). A formal framework for the Java bytecode language and verifier. In Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGPLAN conference on object-oriented programming, systems, languages, and applications (OOPSLA ‘99) (pp. 147–166), New York, USA.Google Scholar
- Garmon, J. (2010). What were the original system requirements for Windows 1.0? Available on-line http://www.jaygarmon.net/2010/11/what-were-original-system-requirements.html. Last accessed September 28, 2016.
- Glowacki, D., Tew, P., Mitchell, T., & McIntosh-Smith, S. (2012). Danceroom spectroscopy: Interactive quantum molecular dynamics accelerated on GPU architectures using OpenCL. In The fourth UK many-core developer conference (UKMAC 2012), Bristol, UK.Google Scholar
- Goldberg, R. (1974, June). Survey of virtual machine research. Computing, 34–45, 7.Google Scholar
- Guohui W., & Ng, T. (2010). The impact of virtualization on network performance of Amazon EC2 data center. In Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM (pp. 1–9).Google Scholar
- Huber, N., von Quast, M., et al. (2011). Evaluating and modeling virtualization performance overhead for cloud environments. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on cloud computing and services science (CLOSER 2011) (pp. 563–573), Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Jones, J. (2010). The emergence and dynamical evolution of complex transport networks from simple low-level behaviours. International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 6(2), 125–144.Google Scholar
- Katzgraber, H. G. (2015). Seeking quantum speedup through spin glasses: Evidence of tunneling?. APS March Meeting 2015, Abstract #L53.005.Google Scholar
- Kirke, A. (2015a). Sound example. https://soundcloud.com/alexiskirke/the-entangled-orchestra-simulation-prototype. Last accessed September 10, 2015.
- Kirke, A. (2015b). Sound example. https://soundcloud.com/alexiskirke/quantum-pmap-convergence-example. Last accessed September 28, 2016.
- Kirke, A., & Miranda, E. (2014b). Towards harmonic extensions of pulsed melodic affective processing—further musical structures for increasing transparency in emotional computation. International Journal of Unconventional Computation, 10(3), 199–217.Google Scholar
- Lucas, A. (2014). Ising formulations of many NP problems. Frontiers in Physics, 2, ID 5.Google Scholar
- Miranda, E. R. (2002). Computer sound design: Synthesis techniques and programming. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Focal Press.Google Scholar
- Miranda, E. R., & Maia, Jr., A. (2007). Fuzzy granular synthesis controlled by Walsh functions. In Proceedings of X Brazilian symposium on computer music, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Available on-line http://compmus.ime.usp.br/sbcm/2005/papers/tech-12479.pdf. Last accessed September 30, 2016.
- Neven, H. (2016). Quantum annealing at Google: Recent learnings and next steps. APS March Meeting 2016, Abstract #F45.001.Google Scholar
- O’Flaherty, E. (2009). LHCsound: Sonification of the ATLAS data output. STFC Small Awards Scheme.Google Scholar
- Putz, V., & Svozil, K. (2015). Quantum music. Soft Computing, 1–5. doi: 10.1007/s00500-015-1835-x
- Quantiki Wiki. (2015). List of QC simulators. http://www.quantiki.org/wiki/List_of_QC_simulators. Last accessed April 01, 2015.
- Shadbolt, P., Verde, M., Peruzzo, A., Politi, A., Laing, A., & Lobino, M. (2012a). Generating, manipulating and measuring entanglement and mixture with a reconfigurable photonic circuit. Nature Photonics, 6, 45–49.Google Scholar
- Shadbolt, P., Vértesi, T., Liang, Y., Branciard, C., Brunner, N., & O’Brien, J. (2012b). Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices. Scientific Reports, 2, Article 470.Google Scholar
- Spector, L., et al. (1999). Finding a better-than-classical quantum AND/OR algorithm using genetic programming. In Proceedings of the congress on evolutionary computation (Vol. 3).Google Scholar
- Stockhausen, K. (1959). … How time passes … Die Reihe (English edition), (Vol. 3, pp. 10–40).Google Scholar
- Sturm, B. (2000). Sonification of particle systems via de Broglie’s hypothesis. In Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Auditory Display, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
- VMWare Inc. (2015). Understanding full virtualization, paravirtualization, and hardware assist. Available on line http://www.vmware.com/techpapers/2007/understanding-full-virtualization-paravirtualizat-1008.html. Last accessed September 28, 2016.
- Warren, R. H. (2013). Numeric experiments on the commercial quantum computer. Notices of the AMS, 60(11).Google Scholar
- Weimer, H. (2014). Listen to quantum computer music. Quantenblog. http://www.quantenblog.net/physics/quantum-computer-music. Last accessed October 31, 2014.
- Wired. (2015). CERN’s ‘Cosmic Piano’ uses particle data to make music. Wired, September 8, 2015.Google Scholar
- Xenakis, I. (1971). Formalized music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar