Uptake of Climate-Smart Agriculture Through a Gendered Intersectionality Lens: Experiences from Western Kenya
This study conducted in western Kenya demonstrates how a gendered intersectionality lens can be used to explore how and the extent to which farming communities are coping with climate change. Results from a quantitative survey undertaken with 51 farmers and from 4 focused group discussions held with 33 farmers (19 males and 14 females) indicate that 85% of the respondents are willing to adopt climate-smart agriculture (CSA) interventions if constraining factors are resolved.This study reveals that farmers, regardless of whether they are male or female, are willing to adopt climate smart technologies and practices. However, factors such as ethnicity, education, age and marital status determine the levels of uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Looking at crops for instance, we find a high uptake (62.7%) of improved high yielding varieties (HYVs) amongst farmers with primary level education, meaning literacy levels influence adoption of practices. Analysis using age as a lens reveals that there is a high uptake among the youth and adults. Interestingly, the study site comprises of both the Luo and Kalenjin ethnic communities and even though they neighbor each other, we find a high rate of uptake among the Luo community due to existing social and cultural norms and practices related to farming. In conclusion, using a gendered intersectionality lens strengthens the argument for targeted interventions which focus on local needs and priorities while recognizing local contexts as informed by social, cultural and economic factors.
KeywordsClimate-smart agriculture Uptake Gender Intersectionality Kenya
- AGRA. (2014). Africa agriculture status report: Climate change and smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi: Kenya Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa.Google Scholar
- Agriculture Sector Development Strategy 2010–2020. (2010). Government of Kenya.Google Scholar
- Aggarwal, P., Zougmoré, R., & Kinyangi, J. (2013). Climate-smart villages: A community approach to sustainable agricultural development. Copenhagen, Denmark: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/33322/CCAFSClimate-SmartVillages2013.pdf, accessed January 12, 2016.
- Bernier, Q., Meinzen-Dick, R., Kristjanson, P., Haglund, E., Kovarik, C., Bryan, E., & Sivestri, S. (2015). Gender and Institutional Aspects of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices: Evidence from Kenya.Google Scholar
- Demetriades, J., & Esplen, E. (2010). The gender dimensions of poverty and climate change adaptation. Social Dimensions of Climate Change, 133.Google Scholar
- Deverux, T., & McKune, S. (2014). Gender, power and climate information in Nyando, Kenya. https://ccafs.cgiar.org/blog/gender-power-and-climate-information-nyando-kenya#.VqslI_mqpBc, accessed January 29, 2016.
- FAO. (2007). People-centered climate change adaptation: Integrating gender issues—Awareness of climate change from a gendered perspective. Rome: FAO. ftp://fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a1395e/a1395e00.pdf, accessed on January 29, 2016.
- FAO. (2012). Gender and climate change research in Agriculture and food security for rural development training guide: Food and Agriculture Network.Google Scholar
- FAO. (2013). Climate smart agriculture source book. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://fao.org/docrep/018/i3325e/i3325e.pdf, accessed January 27, 2016.
- Förch, W., Sijmons, K., Mutie, I., Kiplimo, J., Cramer, L., Kristjanson, P., et al. (2013). Core sites in the CCAFS regions: East Africa, West Africa and South Asia version 3: Copenhagen. Denmark: CCAFS.Google Scholar
- GoK. (2013). National climate change action plan 2013–2017. Government of Kenya.Google Scholar
- GoK. (2014). Kenya HIV County Profiles. Government of Kenya.Google Scholar
- GoK. (n.d.). Kenya Climate-Smart Agriculture Program 2015-2030, http://canafrica.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Kenya-CSA-Program-.pdf, accessed January 11, 2016.
- Harvey, C. A., Chacon, M., Donatti, C. I., Garen, E., Hannah, L., Andrade, A., et al. (2014). Climate‐smart landscapes: Opportunities and challenges for integrating adaptation and mitigation in tropical agriculture. Conservation Letters, 7(2), 77–90.Google Scholar
- Jost, C., Ferdous, N., & Spicer, T. (2014). Gender and Inclusion Toolbox: Participatory Research in Climate Change and Agriculture.Google Scholar
- Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2013). 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census Analytical Reports. KNBS 2013.Google Scholar
- Kinyangi, J., Recha, J., Kimeli, P., & Atakos, V. (2015). Climate-smart villages and the hope of food secure households.Google Scholar
- Kristjanson, P., Neufeldt, H., Gassner, A., Mango, J., Kyazze, F. B., Desta, S., et al. (2012). Are food insecure smallholder households making changes in their farming practices? Evidence from East Africa. Food Security, 4(3), 381–397.Google Scholar
- Mango, J., Mideva, A., Osanya, W., & Odhiambo, A. (2011). Summary of baseline household survey results: Lower Nyando, Kenya.Google Scholar
- Neufeldt, H., Jahn, M., Campbell, B. M., Beddington, J. R., DeClerck, F., De Pinto, A., et al. (2013). Beyond climate-smart agriculture: toward safe operating spaces for global food systems. Agric Food Secur, 2(12), 10–1186.Google Scholar
- Niskanen, K. (2011). Gender and power in the Nordic countries. Gender and Power in the Nordic Countries. Oslo: NIKK, 11–54.Google Scholar
- Osumba, J., & Rioux, J. (2015). Scoping study on climate-smart agriculture in Kenya: Smallholder integrated crop-livestock farming systems. In Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture (MICCA) Programme Background report 8. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
- Skinner, E. (2011). Gender and climate change: Overview report: Bridge.Google Scholar
- Symington, A. (2004). Intersectionality: A tool for gender and economic justice.Google Scholar
- Twyman, J., Green, M., Bernier, Q., Kristjanson, P., Russo, S., Tall, A., & McKune, S. (2014). Adaptation actions in Africa: Evidence that gender matters.Google Scholar
- USAID. (2014). Kenya food insecurity fact sheet. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/kenya_fi_fs01_09-30-2014.pdf, accessed May 23, 2016.
- USAID. (2015). Kenya food insecurity fact sheet. https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/kenya_fi_fs01_09-30-2015.pdf, accessed May 23, 2016.
- Waithaka, M., Nelson, G. C., Thomas, T. S., & Kyotalimye, M. (2013). East African agriculture and climate change: A comprehensive analysis. Intl Food Policy Res Inst.Google Scholar