Energy and Matter Fluxes of a Spruce Forest Ecosystem pp 3-18

Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 229) | Cite as

History of the Waldstein Measuring Sites

Chapter

Abstract

The chapter gives an overview of the research at the Waldstein site related to “fluxes of energy and matter of a forest ecosystem” from the founding of BITÖK (Bayreuth Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystem Research) in 1992 up to the present. This includes tables of all relevant projects and experiments together with the scientific focus of these initiatives and the link to the relevant chapters of the book. The research periods can be separated into two parts: the BITÖK funding up to 2004, with additional funding for carbon fluxes by the European Community, and the single projects, funded mainly by the German Science Foundation, under the umbrella of BayCEER (Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research) since 2005. Due to a stable program of climate and air pollution monitoring, it was easy to piggyback comprehensive experimental activities. The FLUXNET station DE-Bay has a nearly 20-year measuring file covering a change from a more homogeneous to a heterogeneous forest.

References

  1. Alsheimer M, Köstner B, Falge E, Tenhunen JD (1998) Temporal and spatial variation in transpiration of Norway spruce stands within a forested catchment of the Fichtelgebirge, Germany. Ann Sci For 55:103–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aubinet M, Clement R, Elbers J, Foken T, Grelle A, Ibrom A, Moncrieff H, Pilegaard K, Rannik U, Rebmann C (2003) Methodology for data acquisition, storage and treatment. In: Valentini R (ed) Fluxes of carbon, water and energy of European forests, ecological studies, vol 163. Springer, Berlin, pp 9–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aubinet M, Grelle A, Ibrom A, Rannik Ü, Moncrieff J, Foken T, Kowalski AS, Martin PH, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Clement R, Elbers J, Granier A, Grünwald T, Morgenstern K, Pilegaard K, Rebmann C, Snijders W, Valentini R, Vesala T (2000) Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: the EUROFLUX methodology. Adv Ecol Res 30:113–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldocchi D, Falge E, Gu L, Olson R, Hollinger D, Running S, Anthoni P, Bernhofer C, Davis K, Evans R, Fuentes J, Goldstein A, Katul G, Law B, Lee XH, Malhi Y, Meyers T, Munger W, Oechel W, Paw U KT, Pilegaard K, Schmid HP, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T (2001) FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 82:2415–2434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger M, Dlugi R, Foken T (2004) Modelling the vegetation atmospheric exchange with transilient model. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment: a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernhofer C, Aubinet M, Clement R, Grelle A, Grünwald T, Ibrom A, Jarvis P, Rebmann C, Schulze E-D, Tenhunen JD (2003) Spruce forests (Norway and Sitka spruce, including Douglas fir): carbon and water fluxes and balances, ecological and ecophysiological determinants. In: Valentini R (ed) Fluxes of carbon, water and energy of European forests. Ecological studies series 163. Springer, Berlin, pp 99–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burkhardt J, Eiden R (1994) Thin water films on coniferous needles: a new device for the study of water vapour condensation and gaseous deposition to plant surfaces and particle samples. Atmos Environ 28:2001–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkhardt J, Gerchau J (1994) A new device for the study of water vapour concentration and gaseous deposition to plant surfaces and particle samples. Atmos Environ 28:2012–2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Culf AD, Foken T, Gash JHC (2004) The energy balance closure problem. In: Kabat P et al (eds) Vegetation, water, humans and the climate. A new perspective on an interactive system, Springer, Berlin, pp 159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eiden R, Förster J, Peters K, Trautner F, Herterich R, Gietl G (1989) Air pollution and deposition. In: Schulze E-D et al (eds) Forest decline and air pollution, vol 77. Springer, Berlin, pp 57–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Falge EM, Ryel RJ, Alsheimer M, Tenhunen JD (1997) Effects on stand structure and physiology on forest gas exchange: a simulation study for Norway spruce. Trees 11:436–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foken T (2003) Lufthygienisch-Bioklimatische Kennzeichnung des oberen Egertales. Bayreuther Forum Ökologie 100:69+XLVIIIGoogle Scholar
  13. Foken T (2004) Climate change in the Lehstenbach region. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin, pp 59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foken T, Aubinet M, Finnigan J, Leclerc MY, Mauder M, Paw U KT (2011) Results of a panel discussion about the energy balance closure correction for trace gases. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 92:ES13–ES18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foken T, Göckede M, Mauder M, Mahrt L, Amiro BD, Munger JW (2004) Post-field data quality control. In: Lee X et al (eds) Handbook of micrometeorology: a guide for surface flux measurement and analysis. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 181–208Google Scholar
  16. Foken T, Meixner FX, Falge E, Zetzsch C, Serafimovich A, Bargsten A, Behrendt T, Biermann T, Breuninger C, Dix S, Gerken T, Hunner M, Lehmann-Pape L, Hens K, Jocher G, Kesselmeier J, Lüers J, Mayer JC, Moravek A, Plake D, Riederer M, Rütz F, Scheibe M, Siebicke L, Sörgel M, Staudt K, Trebs I, Tsokankunku A, Welling M, Wolff V, Zhu Z (2012) Coupling processes and exchange of energy and reactive and non-reactive trace gases at a forest site—results of the EGER experiment. Atmos Chem Phys 12:1923–1950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Göckede M, Foken T, Aubinet M, Aurela M, Banza J, Bernhofer C, Bonnefond J-M, Brunet Y, Carrara A, Clement R, Dellwik E, Elbers JA, Eugster W, Fuhrer J, Granier A, Grünwald T, Heinesch B, Janssens IA, Knohl A, Koeble R, Laurila T, Longdoz B, Manca G, Marek M, Markkanen T, Mateus J, Matteucci G, Mauder M, Migliavacca M, Minerbi S, Moncrieff JB, Montagnani L, Moors E, Ourcival J-M, Papale D, Pereira J, Pilegaard K, Pita G, Rambal S, Rebmann C, Rodrigues A, Rotenberg E, Sanz MJ, Sedlak P, Seufert G, Siebicke L, Soussana JF, Valentini R, Vesala T, Verbeeck H, Yakir D (2008) Quality control of CarboEurope flux data—part 1: coupling footprint analyses with flux data quality assessment to evaluate sites in forest ecosystems. Biogeosciences 5:433–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Göckede M, Markkanen T, Hasager CB, Foken T (2006) Update of a footprint-based approach for the characterisation of complex measuring sites. Bound Lay Meteorol 118:635–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Göckede M, Rebmann C, Foken T (2004) A combination of quality assessment tools for eddy covariance measurements with footprint modelling for the characterisation of complex sites. Agric For Meteorol 127:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Held A, Klemm O (2006) Direct measurement of turbulent particle exchange with a twin CPC eddy covariance system. Atmos Environm 40(Supplement 1):92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kabat P, Claussen M, Dirmeyer PA, Gash JHC, de Guenni LB, Meybeck H, Pielke RA Sr, Vörösmarty C, Hutjes RWA, Lütkemeier S (eds) (2004) Vegetation, water, humans and the climate. A new perspective on an interactive system. Springer, Berlin, 566 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Klemm O (2004) Trace gases and particles in the atmospheric boundary layer at the Waldstein site: present state and his historic trends. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klemm O, Held A, Forkel R, Gasche R, Kanter H-J, Rappenglück B, Steinbrecher R, Müller K, Plewka A, Cojocariu C, Kreuzwieser J, Valverde-Canossa, Schuster G, Moortgat GK, Graus M, Hansel A (2006) Experiments on forest/atmosphere exchange: climatology and fluxes during two summer campaigns in NE Bavaria. Atmos Environ 40(Supplement 1):3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klemm O, Lange H (1999) Trends of air pollution in the fichtelgebirge mountains, Bavaria. Environ Sci Pollut Res 6:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Köstner B, Alsheimer M, Tenhunen JD (1996) Water fluxes in a spruce forest ecosystem: tree canopy transpiration at different sites. Verh Ges Ökol 26:61–68Google Scholar
  26. Köstner B, Falge EM, Alsheimer M, Geyer R, Tenhunen JD (1998) Estimating tree canopy water use via xylem sapflow in an old Norway spruce forest and a comparison with simulation-based canopy transpiration estimates. Ann For Sci 55:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lüers J, Foken T (2009) Proceedings of the international conference of “Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry in Forest Ecosystems”, Castle of Thurnau, Germany, Oct 5 to Oct 8, 2009. Arbeitsergebn, Univ Bayreuth, Abt Mikrometeorol, ISSN 1614–8916, 40, 70ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Matteucci G, Dore S, Stivanello S, Rebmann C, Buchmann N (2000) Soil respiration in beech and spruce forests in Europe: trends, controling factors, annual budgets and implications for the ecosystem carbon balance. In: Schulze ED (ed) Carbon and nitrogen cycling in European forest ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, pp 217–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matzner E (ed) (2004) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing environment, a German case study. Springer, Berlin, 498 ppGoogle Scholar
  30. Mauder M, Foken T, Clement R, Elbers J, Eugster W, Grünwald T, Heusinkveld B, Kolle O (2008) Quality control of CarboEurope flux data—part 2: inter-comparison of eddy-covariance software. Biogeosciences 5:451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Muhr J, Borken W, Matzner E (2009) Effects of soil frost on soil respiration and its radiocarbon signature in a Norway spruce forest soil. Glob Chang Biol 15:782–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ostendorf B, Manderscheid B (1997) Seasonal modelling of catchment water balance: a two-level cascading modification of TOPMODEL to increase the realism of spatio-temporal processes. Hydrol Process 11:1231–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peters K, Bruckner-Schatt G (1995) The dry deposition of gaseous and participate nitrogen compounds to a spruce stand. Water Air Soil Pollut 85:2217–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rebmann C, Anthoni P, Falge E, Göckede M, Mangold A, Subke J-A, Thomas C, Wichura B, Schulze ED, Tenhunen J, Foken T (2004) Carbon budget of a spruce forest ecosystem. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rebmann C, Göckede M, Foken T, Aubinet M, Aurela M, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Carrara A, Cescatti A, Ceulemans R, Clement R, Elbers J, Granier A, Grünwald T, Guyon D, Havránková K, Heinesch B, Knohl A, Laurila T, Longdoz B, Marcolla B, Markkanen T, Miglietta F, Moncrieff H, Montagnani L, Moors E, Nardino M, Ourcvial J-M, Rambal S, Rannik U, Rotenberg E, Sedlak P, Unterhuber G, Vesala T, Yakir D (2005) Quality analysis applied on eddy covariance measurements at complex forest sites using footprint modelling. Theor Appl Climatol 80:121–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schlather M, Huwe B (2005) A stochastic model for 3-dimensional flow patterns in infiltration experiments. J Hydrol 310:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schulze ED (ed) (1994) Flux control in biological systems. Academic Press, San Diego, NY, 494~ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Schulze ED, Lange OL, Oren R (eds) (1989) Forest decline and air pollution, vol XVIII. Springer, Berlin, 475 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Steinbrecher R, Rappenglück B, Hansel A, Graus M, Klemm O, Held A, Wiedensohler A, Nowak A (2004) Vegetation-atmospheric interactions: the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) and their relevance to atmospheric particle dynamics. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 215–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sturm N, Köstner B, Hartung W, Tenhunen JD (1998) Environmental and endogenous controls on leaf- and stand-level water conductance in a Scots pine plantation. Ann Sci For 55:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Subke J-A, Buchmann N, Tenhunen JD (2004) Soil CO2 fluxes in spruce forests—temporal and spacial variation, and environmental controls. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Subke J-A, Tenhunen J (2004) Direct measurements of CO2 flux below a spruce forest canopy. Agric For Meteorol 126:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tenhunen JD, Valentini R, Köstner B, Zimmermann R, Granier A (1998) Variation in forest gas exchange at landscape to continental scales. Ann Sci For 55:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thomas C, Foken T (2007a) Flux contribution of coherent structures and its implications for the exchange of energy and matter in a tall spruce canopy. Bound Lay Meteorol 123:317–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thomas C, Foken T (2007b) Organised motion in a tall spruce canopy: temporal scales, structure spacing and terrain effects. Bound Lay Meteorol 122:123–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thomas C, Ruppert J, Lüers J, Schröter J, Mayer J-C, Bertolini T (2004) Documentation of the WALDATEM-2003 experiment April, 28th to August, 03rd 2003. Arbeitsergebn, Univ Bayreuth, Abt Mikrometeorol, ISSN 1614–8916, 24, 57 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. Valentini R (ed) (2003) Fluxes of carbon, water and energy of European forests. Ecological studies, vol 163. Springer, Berlin, 270 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Wedler M, Köstner B, Tenhunen J (1996) Understory contribution to stand total water loss at an old Norway spruce forest. Verh Ges Ökol 26:69–77Google Scholar
  49. Wichura B, Ruppert J, Delany AC, Buchmann N, Foken T (2004) Structure of carbon dioxide exchange processes above a spruce forest. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 161–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wrzesinsky T, Klemm O (2000) Summertime fog chemistry at a mountainous site in central Europe. Atmos Environ 34:1487–1496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wrzesinsky T, Scheer C, Klemm O (2004) Fog deposition and its role in biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and pollutants. In: Matzner E (ed) Biogeochemistry of forested catchments in a changing enivironment, a German case study. Ecological studies, vol 172. Springer, Berlin, pp 191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wunderlich S, Borken W (2012) Partitioning of soil CO2 efflux in un-manipulated and experimentally flooded plots of a temperate fen. Biogeosciences 9:3477–3489CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BischbergGermany
  2. 2.Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental ResearchUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany
  3. 3.Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental ResearchUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations