Advertisement

Software Architecture Challenges and Emerging Research in Software-Intensive Systems-of-Systems

  • Flavio Oquendo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9839)

Abstract

Software-intensive systems are often independently developed, operated, managed, and evolved. Progressively, communication networks enabled these independent systems to interact, yielding a new kind of complex system, i.e. a system that is itself composed of systems, the so-called System-of-Systems (SoS). By its very nature, SoS is evolutionarily developed and exhibits emergent behavior.

Actually, software architecture research has mainly focused on single systems, mostly large or very large distributed systems whose software architecture is described as design-time configurations of components linked together through connectors. However, it is well known that the restricted characteristics of single (even very large distributed) systems lead to architectural solutions (in terms of theories, languages, tools, and methods) that do not scale up to the case of systems-of-systems.

Indeed, novel architectural solutions are needed to handle the complexity of software-intensive systems-of-systems in particular regarding the software architecture challenges implied by evolutionary development and emergent behavior.

This paper presents the challenges facing software architecture research to address software-intensive systems-of-systems. It analyzes the discriminating characteristics of system-of-systems when compared with single systems from the software architecture perspective and focuses on recent advances in software architecture research to formally describe the architecture of software-intensive systems-of-systems.

Keywords

Software architecture Software-intensive system-of-systems Software architecture challenges Research on formal architecture description Formal behavioral modeling Emergent behavior 

References

  1. 1.
    Cavalcante, E., Batista, T.V., Oquendo, F.: Supporting dynamic software architectures: from architectural description to implementation. In: Proceedings of the 12th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA), Montreal, Canada, pp. 31–40, May 2015Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cavalcante, E., Quilbeuf, J., Traonouez, L.M., Oquendo, F., Batista, T., Legay, A.: Statistical model checking of dynamic software architectures. In: Tekinerdogan, B., et al. (eds.) ECSA 2016. LNCS, vol. 9839, pp. 185–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    COMPASS: Comprehensive Modelling for Advanced Systems of Systems. http://www.compass-research.eu
  4. 4.
    DANSE: Designing for Adaptability and Evolution in System-of-Systems Engineering. http://www.danse-ip.eu
  5. 5.
    Lemos, R., et al.: Software engineering for self-adaptive systems: a second research roadmap. In: Lemos, R., Giese, H., Müller, Hausi, A., Shaw, M. (eds.). LNCS, vol. 7475, pp. 1–32. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-35813-5_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ERCIM: Special Theme: Trustworthy Systems-of-Systems, ERCIM News, vol. 102, July 2015. http://ercim-news.ercim.eu/en102/
  7. 7.
    European Commission (EC) - Horizon 2020 Framework Program: H2020 Digital Agenda on Systems-of-Systems. https://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/system-systems
  8. 8.
    Firesmith, D.: Profiling systems using the defining characteristics of systems of systems (SoS), software engineering institute. SEI Technical report: CMU/SEI-2010-TN-001, 87 p., February 2010Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    FP7 CSA Road2SoS (Roadmaps to Systems-of-Systems Engineering) (2011–2013): Commonalities in SoS Applications Domains and Recommendations for Strategic Action. http://road2sos-project.eu/
  10. 10.
    FP7 CSA Road2SoS (Roadmaps to Systems-of-Systems Engineering): Survey on Industrial Needs and Benefits of SoS in Different SoS Domains: Multi-site Industrial Production Manufacturing, Multi-modal Traffic Control, Emergency and Crisis Management, Distributed Energy Generation and Smart Grids. http://road2sos-project.eu/
  11. 11.
    FP7 CSA T-AREA-SoS (Trans-Atlantic Research and Education Agenda on Systems-of-Systems) (2011–2013): Strategic Research Agenda on Systems-of-Systems Engineering. https://www.tareasos.eu/
  12. 12.
    Feiler, F., et al.: Ultra-Large-Scale Systems: The Software Challenge of the Future, Software Engineering Institute – SEI/CMU, 150 p., June 2006Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    GEO (Group on Earth Observations): Global Earth Observation System-of-Systems (GEOSS). http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.php
  14. 14.
    Guessi, M., Nakagawa, E.Y., Oquendo, F.: A systematic literature review on the description of software architectures for systems-of-systems. In: Proceedings of the 30th ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC), Salamanca, Spain, pp. 1–8, April 2015Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guessi, M., Oquendo, F., Nakagawa, E.Y.: Checking the architectural feasibility of systems-of-systems using formal descriptions. In: Proceedings of the 11th System-of-Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), June 2016Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H2020 CSA CPSoS (Roadmap for Cyber-Physical Systems-of-Systems) (2013–2016), Roadmap: Analysis of the State-of-the-Art and Future Challenges in Cyber-Physical Systems-of-Systems. http://www.cpsos.eu/
  17. 17.
    ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011: Systems and Software Engineering – Architecture Description, 46 p., December 2011Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jamshidi, M.: System-of-Systems Engineering: Innovations for the 21st Century. Wiley, Hoboken (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jaradat, R.M., et al.: A histogram analysis for system-of-systems. Int. J. Syst.-Syst. Eng. 5(3), 193–227 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johnson, C.W.: Complexity in design and engineering. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 91(12), 1475–1588 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klein, J., van Vliet, H.: A systematic review of system-of-systems architecture research. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Quality of Software architectures (QoSA), Vancouver, Canada, pp. 13–22, June 2013Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Korsten, P., Seider, C.: The World’s 4 Trillion-Dollar Challenge: Using a System-of-Systems Approach to build a Smarter Planet, IBM, 20 p., January 2010. ibm.com/iibv
  23. 23.
    Maier, M.W.: Architecting principles for systems-of-systems. Syst. Eng. 1(4), 267–284 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malavolta, I., et al.: What industry needs from architectural languages: a survey. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 39(6), 869–891 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Medvidovic, N., Taylor, R.: A classification and comparison framework for software architecture description languages. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 26(1), 70–93 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Milner, R.: Communicating and Mobile Systems: The π-Calculus, 174 p. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Morrison, R., Balasubramaniam, D., Oquendo, F., Warboys, B., Greenwood, R.M.: An active architecture approach to dynamic systems co-evolution. In: Oquendo, F. (ed.) ECSA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4758, pp. 2–10. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-75132-8_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nielsen, C.B., et al.: Systems-of-systems engineering: basic concepts, model-based techniques, and research directions. ACM Comput. Surv. 48(2), 1–41 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oquendo, F.: π-ADL: architecture description language based on the higher-order typed π-calculus for specifying dynamic and mobile software architectures. ACM Sigsoft Softw. Eng. Not. 29(3), 1–14 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oquendo, F.: Formally describing the software architecture of systems-of-systems with SosADL. In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE System-of-Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), June 2016Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oquendo, F.: π-calculus for SoS: a foundation for formally describing software-intensive systems-of-systems. In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE System-of-Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), June 2016Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oquendo, F.: Case study on formally describing the architecture of a software-intensive system-of-systems with SosADL. In: Proceedings of 15th IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), October 2016Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oquendo, F., Warboys, B., Morrison, R., Dindeleux, R., Gallo, F., Garavel, H., Occhipinti, C.: ArchWare: architecting evolvable software. In: Oquendo, F., Warboys, Brian, C., Morrison, R. (eds.) EWSA 2004. LNCS, vol. 3047, pp. 257–271. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-24769-2_23 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oquendo, F., et al.: Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems (SESoS), Montpellier, France, July 2013Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ozkaya, M., Kloukinas, C.: “Are we there yet? Analyzing architecture description languages for formal analysis, usability, and realizability. In: Proceedings of the 39th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Santander, Spain, pp. 177–184, September 2013Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Quilbeuf, J., Cavalcante, E., Traonouez, L.-M., Oquendo, F., Batista, T., Legay, A.: A logic for the statistical model checking of dynamic software architectures. In: Margaria, T., Steffen, B. (eds.) ISoLA 2016. LNCS, vol. 9952, pp. 806–820. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47166-2_56 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    SAE Standard AS5506-2012: Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL), 398 p., September 2012Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silva, E., Batista, T., Oquendo, F.: A mission-oriented approach for designing system-of-systems. In: Proceedings of the 10th IEEE System-of-Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), pp. 346–351, May 2015Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    SysML: Systems Modeling Language. http://www.omg.org/spec/SysML
  40. 40.
    UML: Unified Modeling Language. http://www.omg.org/spec/UML
  41. 41.
    US Sandia National Laboratories, Roadmap: Roadmap for the Complex Adaptive Systems-of-Systems (CASoS) Engineering Initiative. http://www.sandia.gov/
  42. 42.
    US Software Engineering Institute/Carnegie Mellon University: System-of-Systems Program. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/sos/
  43. 43.
    Wirsing, M., Hölzl, M.: Rigorous Software Engineering for Service-Oriented Systems, 748 p. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wirsing, M., et al.: Software Engineering for Collective Autonomic Systems, 537 p. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IRISA – UMR CNRS/Univ. Bretagne SudVannesFrance

Personalised recommendations