Differences of Field Dependent/Independent Gamers on Cultural Heritage Playing: Preliminary Findings of an Eye–Tracking Study

  • George E. Raptis
  • Christos A. Fidas
  • Nikolaos M. Avouris
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10059)


Based on a large number of different cognitive theories on information processing procedure, suggesting that individuals have different approaches in the way they forage, retrieve, process, store and recall information, this paper investigates the effect of field dependence/independence with regards to visual attention of gamers in the context of a cultural heritage game. Gaze data were collected and analysed from fourteen participants, who were classified as field dependent or independent according to Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), a cognitive style elicitation instrument. The collected data were analysed quantitatively to examine visual attention in terms of fixation count and fixation impact. The results revealed statistically significant differences in both fixation count and fixation impact towards interactive game elements. Statistically significant differences were also measured for specific types of game elements. Findings are expected to provide insights for designers and researchers aiming to design more user–centric cultural heritage games.


Field dependence/independence Cognitive style Cultural heritage Games Eye–tracking Visual attention Game design 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • George E. Raptis
    • 1
  • Christos A. Fidas
    • 2
  • Nikolaos M. Avouris
    • 1
  1. 1.HCI Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Department of Cultural Heritage Management and New TechnologiesUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece

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