Designing the Human in the Loop of Self-Adaptive Systems

  • Miriam GilEmail author
  • Vicente Pelechano
  • Joan Fons
  • Manoli Albert
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10069)


Self-adaptation is a key requirement in emerging software systems that must become capable of continuously adapting its behavior at run-time to their context (new environmental conditions, resource variability, unpredictable situations, changing user needs, etc.) without human intervention. However, experience in autonomous systems shows that people cannot be excluded entirely of the adaptation loop. For example, in the case of autonomous cars, they still need humans to drive in certain situations (e.g., complex driving situations, emergencies, etc.). This work defines the key factors to design the human participation in the control loops by introducing a framework to design human participations. Our framework considers human attention as a critical factor for user participation. Also, it pays attention to the dynamism between different types of human participation depending on the different system limitations (e.g., uncertainties in sensing, conflicts in goals, etc.) and the current user situation (e.g., user attention, environmental situation, etc.). We illustrate our approach by applying it to manage some actual autonomous cars situations that require human intervention.


Human in the loop Self-adaptation Human-computer interaction User attention 



This work has been developed with the financial support of MINECO under the project SMART-ADAPT TIN2013-42981-P.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Gil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vicente Pelechano
    • 1
  • Joan Fons
    • 1
  • Manoli Albert
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Métodos de Producción de SoftwareUniversitat Politècnica de ValènciaValenciaSpain

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