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Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity

  • Atilla EnginEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 960)

Abstract

Chronic inflammatory state in obesity causes dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors, which disrupt vascular homeostasis and contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and subsequent hypertension. While normal healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) ensures the dilation of blood vessels, obesity-associated PVAT leads to a change in profile of the released adipo-cytokines, resulting in a decreased vasorelaxing effect. Adipose tissue inflammation, nitric oxide (NO)-bioavailability, insulin resistance and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are main participating factors in endothelial dysfunction of obesity. In this chapter, disruption of inter-endothelial junctions between endothelial cells, significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation mediators, which are originated from inflamed endothelial cells, the balance between NO synthesis and ROS, insulin signaling and NO production, and decrease in l-arginine/endogenous asymmetric dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA) ratio are discussed in connection with endothelial dysfunction in obesity.

Keywords

Obesity Asymmetric dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA) Nitric oxide (NO) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) Endothelin-1 (ET-1) Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling Peroxynitrite Super oxide dismutase (SOD) Plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Endothelium Saturated fatty acids Vasodilatory-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) Protein kinase C (PKC) Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of General SurgeryGazi UniversityBesevlerTurkey
  2. 2.CankayaTurkey

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