Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh – Systems, Curricula, and Transition Pathways

  • Faruque A. Haolader
  • Khan Md. Foysol
  • Che Kum Clement
Chapter
Part of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (TVET, volume 24)

Abstract

TVET in Bangladesh is gaining recognition as a vital tool for economic development as the country attempts to attain middle income economy status by 2021. The government is taking several measures to improve the quality of TVET and increase the enrolment in TVET programmes. In this descriptive study we focus on the TVET system, curricula, teachers’ qualifications, current initiatives to enhance relevance of TVET, promote enrolment and female participation. Data was collected through secondary research, including study/project reports, curricula, brochures and research articles. The study was delimited to formal TVET sector including apprenticeship.

In Bangladesh, the majority of TVET programmes are provided at Diploma and Certificate levels in specialized areas through public/private/Non-Government Organisation (NGO)-run institutions. It is mainly school-based and government regulated, however industry participation in developing training standards and strengthening formal apprenticeship training are currently on the national agenda.

The curricula of Diploma and Certificate level programmes are organised subject-wise. The Diploma curriculum contains 41 % theoretical content and 59 % practical content and the curricula of Secondary School Certificate (SSC) (vocational (Voc))/Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) (Voc) Certificate courses contain approximately 46 % theoretical content and 54 % practical content, excluding an industrial attachment training period.

Incorporating and building on the school based (traditional) methods of delivering skills, a new system has recently been introduced – the National Skills Development System (NSDS). This includes a new National Technical and Vocational Qualifications Framework (NTVQF), uses a competency-based training and assessment (CBT&A) approach and includes Recognition of Prior Learning/Recognition of Current Learning (RPL/RCL). The training standards for NTVQF qualifications are made up of stand-alone units of competency.

Several initiatives are being taken by the government and donor agencies to increase the enrolment and encourage female participation and gender equity in TVET. The authors suggest studies on the performance of TVET institutions in implementing the curricula and the outcomes of these initiatives.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are very much grateful to Mr Arthur E Shears and Ms Sarah Jane Saltmarsh for their kind support by providing valuable inputs to this article and by proof reading it.

References

  1. ADB (Asian Development Bank). (2008). Bangladesh vocational education system improvements to increase job prospects. http://www.adb.org/news/bangladesh-vocational-education-system-improvements-increase-job-prospects. Accessed 20 Apr 2015.
  2. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., et al. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  3. BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). (2015). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. http://www.bbs.gov.bd/home.aspx. Accessed 20 Apr 2015.
  4. Bloom, B., Engelhart, M., Furst, E., et al. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I: The cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Google Scholar
  5. BMET (Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training). (2014). Skills standards of BMET. Goverment of Bangladesh. Tech Report. Sep 2014, Dhaka: Goverment of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  6. BTEB (Bangladesh Technical Education Board). (2012a). National skills quality assurance system. Government of Bangladesh. Manual 3: Registration of training organizations and accreditation of learning and assessment programs. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@asia/@ro-bangkok/@ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_226427.pdf. Accessed 04 Nov 2015.
  7. BTEB (Bangladesh Technical Education Board). (2012b). National skills quality assurance system. Manual 4: Quality assurance of assessment and accreditation of assessment centres. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_226433.pdf. Accessed 04 Nov 2015.
  8. BTEB (Bangladesh Technical Education Board). (2014). Diploma in engineering curriculum. http://www.bteb.gov.bd/index.php?action=home. Accessed 20 Sept 2014.Google Scholar
  9. BTEB (Bangladesh Technical Education Board). (2015). Diploma in engineering curriculum. https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0BynIJ2cATXt3NmxhWC1JTDd3RHc&usp=sharing. Accessed 20 Sep 2015.
  10. BTEB (Bangladesh Technical Education Board). (2016). Competency standards for electrical installation and maintenance. NTVQ Level 1–4. Bangladesh Technical Education Board. http://www.btebcbt.gov.bd/utility/list_user. Accessed 30 Mar 2016.
  11. Cordier, A., Gold, E., & Habib, M. A. (2012). Apprenticeships in Bangladesh: Strengthening the apprenticeship system in Bangladesh through the application of dual approach. Final Report. European Union/International Labour Organization Technical and Vocational Education and Training (EU/ILO TVET) Reform Project. Accessed 10 Sept 2012.Google Scholar
  12. DeSilva, F. D., & Ahsan, T. (2015). Apprenticeships in Bangladesh. Conference paper presented at international conference on TVET for sustainable development. 30 Apr to 2 May 2015, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  13. DTE. (2014a). Skills and Training Enhancement Project (STEP) yearly Brochure-2014, Feb 2014, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  14. DTE. (2014b). Technical and vocational education week brochure-2014, Jun 2014, Dhaka.Google Scholar
  15. DTE (Directorate of Technical Education). (2015). Information about DTE. http://www.techedu.gov.bd. Accessed 20 Apr 2015.Google Scholar
  16. Elbushari, I. E., & Aktaruzzaman, M. (2012). Identification of the problems and prospects in Vocational Education and Training (VET) of Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education, 1(1), 76–89.Google Scholar
  17. EU (European Union). (2015). TVET reform project in Bangladesh. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Projects/WCMS_106485/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 16 Apr 2015.
  18. Finch, C. R., & Crunkilton, J. R. (1999). Curriculum development in vocational and technical education: Planning, content, and implementation. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  19. Haolader, F. A., & Nickolaus, R. (2012). Technical and vocational education and training: Curricula reform demand in Bangladesh. An empirical study of the curricula of the Diploma-in-Engineering Programme in Bangladesh and the German initial vocational training in the Dual System and the curricular effects. Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 10(4), 36–40.Google Scholar
  20. Haolader, F. A., & Paul, D. K. (2013). The present status of polytechnic curriculum and student assessment approach in Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Management Sciences & Education, Oyama, Japan, 2(1), 125–137.Google Scholar
  21. Haolader, F. A., Ali, M. R., & Foysol, K. M. (2015). The taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: current practices at polytechnics in Bangladesh and its effects in developing students’ competences. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 2(2), 99–118.Google Scholar
  22. Hossain, S. S. (2012). Situation analysis of SSC (Voc) institutions. Dhaka: Skills and Training Enhancement Project (STEP). Directorate of Technical Education, Government of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  23. ILO (International Labour Organisation). (2009). A national technical and vocational qualification framework for Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh: ILO TVET reform project http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@asia/@ro-bangkok/@ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_120502.pdf. Accessed 26 Sep 2012.Google Scholar
  24. ILO (International Labour Organisation). (2014). Implementation manual: National Technical and Vocational Qualifications Framework (NTVQF). http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Publications/WCMS_222644/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 12 May 2016.
  25. ILO (International Labour Organisation). (2015). 64 Technical Schools and Colleges get approval to start delivering contract training to industry. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Publications/WCMS_354252/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 20 Apr 2015.
  26. Islam, N. I. (2008). Availability of data related to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Publications/WCMS_106496/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.
  27. Kashem, A., Chowdhury, K. A., & Shears, A. E. (2011). TVET developments in Bangladesh. Paper presented at regional conference on human resource development strategy in Asia. Aug 2011, Colombo.Google Scholar
  28. Khanam, D., & Shamsuddoha, M. (2003). Development of human resources in Bangladesh: an analysis of institutional supports. Human resource development in Asia: National policy perspectives’ by Academy of Human Resource Development International, USA (AHRD) and National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand, Nov 30–Dec 1 2003. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1295429 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1295429. Accessed 15 Oct 2015.
  29. Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay.Google Scholar
  30. Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2007). The new taxonomy of educational objectives (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  31. Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2008). Designing and assessing educational objectives: Applying the new taxonomy. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  32. MoE (Ministry of Education). (2009). National Education Policy 2009. Tech report. Government of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  33. MoE (Ministry of Education). (2011). National skills development policy. Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Publications/WCMS_113958/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed Jul 2015.
  34. Navaneetham, K., & Dharmalingam, A. (2012). A review of age structural transition and demographic dividend in South Asia: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Population Ageing, 5(4), 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. NSDC (National Skills Development Council). (2015). Survey of TVET providers in Bangladesh. 2013–2014. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  36. NSDS. (2015). The National Skills Development System in Bangladesh. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Publications/WCMS_445255/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 14 May 2016.
  37. NSQAS. (2012). National skills quality assurance system. Government of Bangladesh. Manual 3: Registration of training organizations and accreditation of learning and assessment programs. Bangladesh Technical Education Board.Google Scholar
  38. Oxtoby, R. (1997). Barriers to the provision of cost-effective technical education in Bangladesh. International Journal of Educational Development, 17(1), 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rafique, A. (2014). TVET governance structure reframed for ensuring students learning. Mohammadpur: College Gate Binding & Printing.Google Scholar
  40. Rahman, R., Mondal, A., & Islam, R. (2008). Mapping and analysis of growth-oriented industrial sub-sectors and their skill requirements in Bangladesh, Employment report No. 17. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  41. Ray, S., Sinha, A. K., & Chaudhuri, S. (2007). Making Bangladesh a leading manpower exporter: Chasing a dream of US $30 billion annual migrant remittances by 2015. Dhaka: Royal Danish Embassy Report http://bangladesh.um.dk/en/danida-en/publications. Accessed 15 Sept 2015.Google Scholar
  42. Shears, A.E. (2012). Quality assurance in Bangladesh TVE. Proceedings of the international workshop on quality assurance in TVET institution. 10–13 Nov 2012. Dhaka: Islamic University of Technology (IUT).Google Scholar
  43. Talukder, M. A. H. (2014). TVET in Bangladesh: an overview. A paper presented at Technical and Vocational Education Week-2014, (18–24 June). Dhaka: Directorate of Technical Education.Google Scholar
  44. UNESCO. (2011). Revision of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). General conference, 36th Session, Paris, Sept 2011.Google Scholar
  45. World Bank. (2006). The Bangladesh vocational education and training system: An assessment. Dhaka: Human Development Unit, South Asia Region, The World Bank.Google Scholar
  46. World Bank. (2007). Learning for job opportunities: An assessment of the vocational education and training in Bangladesh. Bangladesh development series paper No. 19. World Bank, Washington. From http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/09/15/090224b0828b3332/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Learning0for0j0aining0in0Bangladesh.pdf. Accessed 22 Apr 2016.
  47. World Bank. (2013). Bangladesh education sector review. Seeding fertile ground: Education that works for Bangladesh. Report No. 80613-BD. Dhaka: Human Development Sector, South Asia Region, The World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faruque A. Haolader
    • 1
  • Khan Md. Foysol
    • 2
  • Che Kum Clement
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Technical and Vocational EducationIslamic University of Technology (IUT), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)DhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of TextileNoakhali Textile Engineering College (NTEC)NoakhaliBangladesh

Personalised recommendations