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Dexmedetomidine: The Science and Clinical Aspects in Adults and Children

  • Mohamed MahmoudEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The unique sedative properties of dexmedetomidine (DEX) have created new interest in the use of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists and have led to its evaluation in a variety of pediatric and adult procedures. DEX has been shown to offer a beneficial pharmacological profile, with sedation which parallels natural sleep, sympatholysis, and anesthetic-sparing effect without relevant respiratory depression. In addition, there is increasing evidence supporting its organ protective effects against ischemic and hypoxic injury. The side effects of DEX including biphasic, dose-dependent blood pressure response, and bradycardia are predictable from the pharmacological profile of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. A comprehensive understanding of the pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic effects of DEX is critical to maximize its safe application in adults and children.

Keywords

Alpha-2 adrenoceptors Dexmedetomidine Anesthesia Perioperative use Procedural sedation Adverse events Pharmacology 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia and PediatricsCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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