\( Co_{2} \) and Idling Emission Estimation for Vehicle Routing Problem with Mid Way Halts

  • Ganesan PoonthalirEmail author
  • R. Nadarajan
  • S. Geetha
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 527)


Green Logistics are gaining importance due to green house gas emissions and its adverse impact on the environment. In this paper, we address the issues with vehicle routing and emissions. This paper reports the emissions that arise with Vehicle Routing Problem with Mid way Halts (VRPMH) and concentrates in finding low cost route for VRPMH using PSO with local exchange. Along with distance minimization, cruise and idling state emissions are reported. Computational experiments are carried out with green vehicle routing problem instances and the results are tabulated. The results project the impact of idling emissions and the need for its possible reduction.


Green logistics \( co_{2} \) emission Fuel consumption Particle swarm optimization Vehicle routing problem 


  1. 1.
    Bektaş, T., Laporte, G.: The pollution-routing problem. Transp. Res. Part B Methodol. 45, 1232–1250 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Van den Berg, A.J.: Truckstop electrification: reducing CO2 emissions from mobile sources while they are stationary. Energy Convers. Manage. 37, 879–884 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brodrick, C.J., Dwyer, H.A., Farshchi, M., Harris, D.B., King Jr., F.G.: Effects of engine speed and accessory load on idling emissions from heavy-duty diesel truck engines. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 52, 1026–1031 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Demir, E., Bektas, T., Laporte, G.: A comparative analysis of several vehicle emission models for road freight transportation. Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ. 6, 347–357 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Demir, E., Bektaş, T., Laporte, G.: A review of recent research on green road freight transportation. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 237, 775–793 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Erdoğan, S., Miller-Hooks, E.: A green vehicle routing problem. Transp. Res. Part E Logistics Transp. Rev. 48, 100–114 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Figliozzi, M.: Vehicle routing problem for emissions minimization. Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board. (2010). doi: 10.3141/2197-01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hickman, J., Hassel, D., Joumard, R., Samaras, Z., Sorenson, S.: MEET-methodology for calculating transport emissions and energy consumption. European Commission DG VII Technical report (1999).
  9. 9.
    Kara, I., Kara, B.Y., Yetis, M.: Energy minimizing vehicle routing problem. In: Dress, A.W., Xu, Y., Zhu, B. (eds.) COCOA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4616, pp. 62–71. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kuo, Y.: Using simulated annealing to minimise fuel consumption for the time-dependent vehicle routing problem. Comput. Ind. Eng. 59(1), 157–165 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maden, W., Eglese, R., Black, D.: Vehicle routing and scheduling with time varying data: A case study. J. Oper. Res. Soc. 61, 515–522 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sbihi, A., Eglese, R.W.: The relationship between vehicle routing and scheduling and green logistics-a literature survey (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sbihi, A., Eglese, R.W.: Combinatorial optimization and green logistics. Ann. Oper. Res. 175(1), 159–175 (2010)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Srinivasan, S.: Automotive Engines. Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suzuki, Y.: A new truck-routing approach for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants emission. Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ. 16(1), 73–77 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ubeda, S., Arcelus, F.J., Faulin, J.: Green logistics at Eroski: A case study. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 131, 44–51 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xiao, Y., Zhao, Q., Kaku, I., Xu, Y.: Development of a fuel consumption optimization model for the capacitated vehicle routing problem. Comput. Oper. Res. 39, 1419–1431 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Mathematics and Computational SciencesPSG College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceGovernment Arts CollegeUdumalpetIndia

Personalised recommendations