Milk Quality Monitoring Using Electromagnetic Wave Sensors

  • Keyur H. Joshi
  • Alex Mason
  • Olga Korostynska
  • Ahmed Al-Shamma’a
Part of the Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation book series (SSMI, volume 23)


This chapter presents a novel approach to monitor the quality of milk products, based on electromagnetic wave spectroscopy. A comparative analysis is made to demonstrate the effectiveness of using microwave sensors over the other types, existing in the wide field of sensing technology. Three broadly used commercial varieties of milk, namely skimmed, semi-skimmed, and whole milk types are considered for the test measurements. The overall quality parameters of these products obtained from the market are comparatively measured in terms of their composition and spoilage with reference to ageing. The experiments carried out have illustrated that the sensor was able to distinguish one milk type from another. Moreover, it was also able to differentiate between fresh and aged milk samples of a given milk type as the number of days passes. The methodology used here employs Vector Network Analyser to capture spectral signatures in the form of scattering parameters from electromagnetic wave sensors. These data are then analysed to evaluate quality monitoring process achieved by these sensors. This work offers a potential platform for an economical, less complicated, and real-time milk quality control mechanism that can be employed outside of the laboratories at medium or large scale retailers in milk supply chain hierarchy.


Milk Product Milk Sample Dairy Industry Vector Network Analyser Milk Quality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keyur H. Joshi
    • 1
  • Alex Mason
    • 1
  • Olga Korostynska
    • 1
  • Ahmed Al-Shamma’a
    • 1
  1. 1.BEST Research Institute, Faculty of Engineering and TechnologyLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

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