Advertisement

Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter spp.

  • Federico Perez
  • Robert A. BonomoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen increasingly identified in the clinical microbiology laboratory as a cause of infection in humans. Upon microscopic examination, A. baumannii appears as a Gram-negative coccobacillus, and it produces clear colonies when grown on MacConkey agar, indicating its inability to ferment lactose. The taxonomy of Acinetobacter genus, part of the γ subclass of the Proteobacteria phylum, is complex and currently comprises 43 species (http://www.bacterio.net/acinetobacter.html), defined mostly by genomic DNA–DNA hybridization.

Keywords

Nosocomial Average nucleotide identity (AIN) Point mutation Hypermutagenesis Point mutations Horizontal gene transfer Biofilms Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) Multidrug resistant (MDR) Polymyxins Heteroresistance 

References

  1. 1.
    Dijkshoorn L, Nemec A, Seifert H. An increasing threat in hospitals: multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:939–51.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Espinal P, Seifert H, Dijkshoorn L, Vila J, Roca I. Rapid and accurate identification of genomic species from the Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) group by MALDI-TOF MS. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:1097–103.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hujer KM, Hujer AM, Hulten EA, Bajaksouzian S, Adams JM, Donskey CJ, Ecker DJ, Massire C, Eshoo MW, Sampath R, Thomson JM, Rather PN, Craft DW, Fishbain JT, Ewell AJ, Jacobs MR, Paterson DL, Bonomo RA. Analysis of antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. isolates from military and civilian patients treated at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:4114–23.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nemec A, Dijkshoorn L, Cleenwerck I, De Baere T, Janssens D, Van der Reijden TJ, Jezek P, Vaneechoutte M. Acinetobacter parvus sp. nov., a small-colony-forming species isolated from human clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:1563–7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nemec A, Krizova L, Maixnerova M, Sedo O, Brisse S, Higgins PG. Acinetobacter seifertii sp. nov., a member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolated from human clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2015;65:934–42.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nemec A, Radolfova-Krizova L, Maixnerova M, Vrestiakova E, Jezek P, Sedo O. Taxonomy of haemolytic and/or proteolytic strains of the genus Acinetobacter with the proposals of Acinetobacter courvalinii sp. nov. (genomic species 14 sensu Bouvet & Jeanjean), Acinetobacter dispersus sp. nov. (genomic species 17), Acinetobacter modestus sp. nov., Acinetobacter proteolyticus sp. nov. and Acinetobacter vivianii sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2016.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sedo O, Nemec A, Krizova L, Kacalova M, Zdrahal Z. Improvement of MALDI-TOF MS profiling for the differentiation of species within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2013;36:572–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Touchon M, Cury J, Yoon EJ, Krizova L, Cerqueira GC, Murphy C, Feldgarden M, Wortman J, Clermont D, Lambert T, Grillot-Courvalin C, Nemec A, Courvalin P, Rocha EP. The genomic diversification of the whole Acinetobacter genus: origins, mechanisms, and consequences. Genome Biol Evol. 2014;6:2866–82.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barbe V, Vallenet D, Fonknechten N, Kreimeyer A, Oztas S, Labarre L, Cruveiller S, Robert C, Duprat S, Wincker P, Ornston LN, Weissenbach J, Marliere P, Cohen GN, Medigue C. Unique features revealed by the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. ADP1, a versatile and naturally transformation competent bacterium. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5766–79.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fournier PE, Vallenet D, Barbe V, Audic S, Ogata H, Poirel L, Richet H, Robert C, Mangenot S, Abergel C, Nordmann P, Weissenbach J, Raoult D, Claverie JM. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS Genet. 2006;2, e7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Antunes LC, Visca P, Towner KJ. Acinetobacter baumannii: evolution of a global pathogen. Pathog Dis. 2014;71:292–301.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Imperi F, Antunes LC, Blom J, Villa L, Iacono M, Visca P, Carattoli A. The genomics of Acinetobacter baumannii: insights into genome plasticity, antimicrobial resistance and pathogenicity. IUBMB Life. 2011;63:1068–74.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adams MD, Goglin K, Molyneaux N, Hujer KM, Lavender H, Jamison JJ, MacDonald IJ, Martin KM, Russo T, Campagnari AA, Hujer AM, Bonomo RA, Gill SR. Comparative genome sequence analysis of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:8053–64.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sahl JW, Johnson JK, Harris AD, Phillippy AM, Hsiao WW, Thom KA, Rasko DA. Genomic comparison of multi-drug resistant invasive and colonizing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from diverse human body sites reveals genomic plasticity. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:291.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Farrugia DN, Elbourne LD, Hassan KA, Eijkelkamp BA, Tetu SG, Brown MH, Shah BS, Peleg AY, Mabbutt BC, Paulsen IT. The complete genome and phenome of a community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS ONE. 2013;8, e58628.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Turton JF, Ward ME, Woodford N, Kaufmann ME, Pike R, Livermore DM, Pitt TL. The role of ISAba1 in expression of OXA carbapenemase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;258:72–7.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vaneechoutte M, Young DM, Ornston LN, De Baere T, Nemec A, Van der Reijden T, Carr E, Tjernberg I, Dijkshoorn L. Naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 belongs to the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:932–6.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Perez F, Hujer AM, Hujer KM, Decker BK, Rather PN, Bonomo RA. Global challenge of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3471–84.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karah N, Samuelsen O, Zarrilli R, Sahl JW, Wai SN, Uhlin BE. CRISPR-cas subtype I-Fb in Acinetobacter baumannii: evolution and utilization for strain subtyping. PLoS ONE. 2015;10, e0118205.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoon EJ, Courvalin P, Grillot-Courvalin C. RND-type efflux pumps in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii: major role for AdeABC overexpression and AdeRS mutations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2989–95.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eijkelkamp BA, Stroeher UH, Hassan KA, Papadimitrious MS, Paulsen IT, Brown MH. Adherence and motility characteristics of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;323:44–51.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Espinal P, Marti S, Vila J. Effect of biofilm formation on the survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on dry surfaces. J Hosp Infect. 2012;80:56–60.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tomaras AP, Dorsey CW, Edelmann RE, Actis LA. Attachment to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces by Acinetobacter baumannii: involvement of a novel chaperone-usher pili assembly system. Microbiology. 2003;149:3473–84.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Geisinger E, Isberg RR. Antibiotic modulation of capsular exopolysaccharide and virulence in Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11, e1004691.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gaddy JA, Actis LA. Regulation of Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation. Future Microbiol. 2009;4:273–8.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fattahian Y, Rasooli I, Mousavi Gargari SL, Rahbar MR, Darvish Alipour Astaneh S, Amani J. Protection against Acinetobacter baumannii infection via its functional deprivation of biofilm associated protein (Bap). Microbial Pathog. 2011;51:402–6.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bentancor LV, Camacho-Peiro A, Bozkurt-Guzel C, Pier GB, Maira-Litran T. Identification of Ata, a multifunctional trimeric autotransporter of Acinetobacter baumannii. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3950–60.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bentancor LV, O’Malley JM, Bozkurt-Guzel C, Pier GB, Maira-Litran T. Poly-N-acetyl-beta-(1-6)-glucosamine is a target for protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Infect Immun. 2012;80:651–6.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Choi CH, Lee EY, Lee YC, Park TI, Kim HJ, Hyun SH, Kim SA, Lee SK, Lee JC. Outer membrane protein 38 of Acinetobacter baumannii localizes to the mitochondria and induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:1127–38.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    De Breij A, Dijkshoorn L, Lagendijk E, van der Meer J, Koster A, Bloemberg G, Wolterbeek R, van den Broek P, Nibbering P. Do biofilm formation and interactions with human cells explain the clinical success of Acinetobacter baumannii? PLoS ONE. 2010;5, e10732.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pantophlet R, Nemec A, Brade L, Brade H, Dijkshoorn L. O-antigen diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains from the Czech Republic and Northwestern Europe, as determined by lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2576–80.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Erridge C, Moncayo-Nieto OL, Morgan R, Young M, Poxton IR. Acinetobacter baumannii lipopolysaccharides are potent stimulators of human monocyte activation via Toll-like receptor 4 signalling. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:165–71.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lin L, Tan B, Pantapalangkoor P, Ho T, Baquir B, Tomaras A, Montgomery JI, Reilly U, Barbacci EG, Hujer K, Bonomo RA, Fernandez L, Hancock RE, Adams MD, French SW, Buslon VS, Spellberg B. Inhibition of LpxC protects mice from resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by modulating inflammation and enhancing phagocytosis. mBio. 2012;3.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Iwashkiw JA, Seper A, Weber BS, Scott NE, Vinogradov E, Stratilo C, Reiz B, Cordwell SJ, Whittal R, Schild S, Feldman MF. Identification of a general O-linked protein glycosylation system in Acinetobacter baumannii and its role in virulence and biofilm formation. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8, e1002758.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jin JS, Kwon SO, Moon DC, Gurung M, Lee JH, Kim SI, Lee JC. Acinetobacter baumannii secretes cytotoxic outer membrane protein A via outer membrane vesicles. PLoS ONE. 2011;6, e17027.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Smith MG, Des Etages SG, Snyder M. Microbial synergy via an ethanol-triggered pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3874–84.Google Scholar
  37. 38.
    Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, Harbarth S, Hindler JF, Kahlmeter G, Olsson-Liljequist B, Paterson DL, Rice LB, Stelling J, Struelens MJ, Vatopoulos A, Weber JT, Monnet DL. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:268–81.Google Scholar
  38. 39.
    Roca I, Espinal P, Vila-Farres X, Vila J. The Acinetobacter baumannii Oxymoron: commensal hospital dweller turned pan-drug-resistant menace. Front Microbiol. 2012;3:148.Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    Hujer KM, Hamza NS, Hujer AM, Perez F, Helfand MS, Bethel CR, Thomson JM, Anderson VE, Barlow M, Rice LB, Tenover FC, Bonomo RA. Identification of a new allelic variant of the Acinetobacter baumannii cephalosporinase, ADC-7 beta-lactamase: defining a unique family of class C enzymes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2941–8.Google Scholar
  40. 41.
    Poirel L, Nordmann P. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: mechanisms and epidemiology. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:826–36.Google Scholar
  41. 42.
    Chen Y, Zhou Z, Jiang Y, Yu Y. Emergence of NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in China. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:1255–9.Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    Espinal P, Fugazza G, Lopez Y, Kasma M, Lerman Y, Malhotra-Kumar S, Goossens H, Carmeli Y, Vila J. Dissemination of an NDM-2-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clone in an Israeli rehabilitation center. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:5396–8.Google Scholar
  43. 44.
    Nemec A, Dijkshoorn L, VAN DER Reijden TJ. Long-term predominance of two pan-European clones among multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains in the Czech Republic. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:147–53.Google Scholar
  44. 45.
    Doi Y, Adams JM, Yamane K, Paterson DL. Identification of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains in North America. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:4209–10.Google Scholar
  45. 46.
    Doi Y, Arakawa Y. 16S ribosomal RNA methylation: emerging resistance mechanism against aminoglycosides. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:88–94.Google Scholar
  46. 47.
    Magnet S, Courvalin P, Lambert T. Resistance-nodulation-cell division-type efflux pump involved in aminoglycoside resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii strain BM4454. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:3375–80.Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    Touati A, Brasme L, Benallaoua S, Gharout A, Madoux J, De Champs C. First report of qnrB-producing Enterobacter cloacae and qnrA-producing Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from Algerian hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;60:287–90.Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    Jiang X, Yu T, Zhang W, Zhang L, Ma J. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Henan, China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;79:381–3.Google Scholar
  49. 50.
    Garcia-Quintanilla M, Carretero-Ledesma M, Moreno-Martinez P, Martin-Pena R, Pachon J, McConnell MJ. Lipopolysaccharide loss produces partial colistin dependence and collateral sensitivity to azithromycin, rifampicin and vancomycin in Acinetobacter baumannii. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2015;46:696–702.Google Scholar
  50. 51.
    Qureshi ZA, Hittle LE, O’Hara JA, Rivera JI, Syed A, Shields RK, Pasculle AW, Ernst RK, Doi Y. Colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: beyond carbapenem resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:1295–303.Google Scholar
  51. 52.
    Olaitan AO, Morand S, Rolain JM. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria. Front Microbiol. 2014;5:643.Google Scholar
  52. 53.
    O’Hara JA, Ambe LA, Casella LG, Townsend BM, Pelletier MR, Ernst RK, Shanks RM, Doi Y. Activities of vancomycin-containing regimens against colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:2103–8.Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    Beceiro A, Llobet E, Aranda J, Bengoechea JA, Doumith M, Hornsey M, Dhanji H, Chart H, Bou G, Livermore DM, Woodford N. Phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A in colistin-resistant variants of Acinetobacter baumannii mediated by the pmrAB two-component regulatory system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3370–9.Google Scholar
  54. 55.
    Moffatt JH, Harper M, Harrison P, Hale JD, Vinogradov E, Seemann T, Henry R, Crane B, St Michael F, Cox AD, Adler B, Nation RL, Li J, Boyce JD. Colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is mediated by complete loss of lipopolysaccharide production. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:4971–7.Google Scholar
  55. 56.
    Huys G, Cnockaert M, Vaneechoutte M, Woodford N, Nemec A, Dijkshoorn L, Swings J. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in genotypically related and unrelated multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains from different European hospitals. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:348–55.Google Scholar
  56. 57.
    Wieczorek P, Sacha P, Hauschild T, Zorawski M, Krawczyk M, Tryniszewska E. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii--the role of AdeABC (RND family) efflux pump in resistance to antibiotics. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2008;46:257–67.Google Scholar
  57. 58.
    Falagas ME, Bliziotis IA, Siempos II. Attributable mortality of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in critically ill patients: a systematic review of matched cohort and case-control studies. Crit Care. 2006;10:R48.Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    Sunenshine RH, Wright MO, Maragakis LL, Harris AD, Song X, Hebden J, Cosgrove SE, Anderson A, Carnell J, Jernigan DB, Kleinbaum DG, Perl TM, Standiford HC, Srinivasan A. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection mortality rate and length of hospitalization. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:97–103.Google Scholar
  59. 60.
    Lemos EV, De La Hoz FP, Einarson TR, McGhan WF, Quevedo E, Castaneda C, Kawai K. Carbapenem resistance and mortality in patients with Acinetobacter baumannii infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:416–23.Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    Fukuta Y, Muder RR, Agha ME, Clarke LG, Wagener MM, Hensler AM, Doi Y. Risk factors for acquisition of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among cancer patients. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:1249–52.Google Scholar
  61. 62.
    Freire MP, De Oliveira Garcia D, Garcia CP, Campagnari Bueno MF, Camargo CH, Kono Magri AS, Francisco GR, Reghini R, Vieira MF, Ibrahim KY, Rossi F, Hajjar L, Levin AS, Hoff PM, Pierrotti LC, Abdala E. Bloodstream infection caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in cancer patients: high mortality associated with delayed treatment rather than with the degree of neutropenia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015Google Scholar
  62. 63.
    Reddy P, Zembower TR, Ison MG, Baker TA, Stosor V. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections after organ transplantation. Transplant Infect Dis. 2010;12:87–93.Google Scholar
  63. 64.
    Shields RK, Clancy CJ, Gillis LM, Kwak EJ, Silveira FP, Massih RC, Eschenauer GA, Potoski BA, Nguyen MH. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections among solid organ transplant recipients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7, e52349.Google Scholar
  64. 65.
    Patel G, Perez F, Hujer AM, Rudin SD, Augustine JJ, Jacobs GH, Jacobs MR, Bonomo RA. Fulminant endocarditis and disseminated infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a renal-pancreas transplant recipient. Transplant Infect Dis. 2015;17:289–96.Google Scholar
  65. 66.
    Manfredi R, Nanetti A, Valentini R, Chiodo F. Acinetobacter infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: microbiological and clinical epidemiology. Chemotherapy. 2001;47:19–28.Google Scholar
  66. 67.
    Ntusi NB, Badri M, Khalfey H, Whitelaw A, Oliver S, Piercy J, Raine R, Joubert I, Dheda K. ICU-associated Acinetobacter baumannii colonisation/infection in a high HIV-prevalence resource-poor setting. PLoS ONE. 2012;7, e52452.Google Scholar
  67. 68.
    United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acinetobacter baumannii infections among patients at military medical facilities treating injured U.S. service members, 2002–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:1063–6.Google Scholar
  68. 69.
    Sebeny PJ, Riddle MS, Petersen K. Acinetobacter baumannii skin and soft-tissue infection associated with war trauma. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:444–9.Google Scholar
  69. 70.
    Scott P, Deye G, Srinivasan A, Murray C, Moran K, Hulten E, Fishbain J, Craft D, Riddell S, Lindler L, Mancuso J, Milstrey E, Bautista CT, Patel J, Ewell A, Hamilton T, Gaddy C, Tenney M, Christopher G, Petersen K, Endy T, Petruccelli B. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex infection in the US military health care system associated with military operations in Iraq. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1577–84.Google Scholar
  70. 71.
    Maegele M, Gregor S, Steinhausen E, Bouillon B, Heiss MM, Perbix W, Wappler F, Rixen D, Geisen J, Berger-Schreck B, Schwarz R. The long-distance tertiary air transfer and care of tsunami victims: injury pattern and microbiological and psychological aspects. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1136–40.Google Scholar
  71. 72.
    Oncul O, Keskin O, Acar HV, Kucukardali Y, Evrenkaya R, Atasoyu EM, Top C, Nalbant S, Ozkan S, Emekdas G, Cavuslu S, Us MH, Pahsa A, Gokben M. Hospital-acquired infections following the 1999 Marmara earthquake. J Hosp Infect. 2002;51:47–51.Google Scholar
  72. 73.
    Dexter C, Murray GL, Paulsen IT, Peleg AY. Community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathogenesis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2015;13:567–73.Google Scholar
  73. 74.
    Anstey NM, Currie BJ, Withnall KM. Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia in the Northern Territory of Australia. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:83–91.Google Scholar
  74. 75.
    Eber MR, Shardell M, Schweizer ML, Laxminarayan R, Perencevich EN. Seasonal and temperature-associated increases in gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections among hospitalized patients. PLoS ONE. 2011;6, e25298.Google Scholar
  75. 76.
    Jawad A, Seifert H, Snelling AM, Heritage J, Hawkey PM. Survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on dry surfaces: comparison of outbreak and sporadic isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1938–41.Google Scholar
  76. 77.
    Wendt C, Dietze B, Dietz E, Ruden H. Survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on dry surfaces. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1394–7.Google Scholar
  77. 78.
    Thom KA, Johnson JK, Lee MS, Harris AD. Environmental contamination because of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii surrounding colonized or infected patients. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:711–5.Google Scholar
  78. 79.
    Rosa R, Arheart KL, Depascale D, Cleary T, Kett DH, Namias N, Pizano L, Fajardo-Aquino Y, Munoz-Price LS. Environmental exposure to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as a risk factor for patient acquisition of A. baumannii. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35:430–3.Google Scholar
  79. 80.
    Latibeaudiere R, Rosa R, Laowansiri P, Arheart K, Namias N, Munoz-Price LS. Surveillance cultures growing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii predict the development of clinical infections: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:415–22.Google Scholar
  80. 81.
    Marchaim D, Navon-Venezia S, Schwartz D, Tarabeia J, Fefer I, Schwaber MJ, Carmeli Y. Surveillance cultures and duration of carriage of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1551–5.Google Scholar
  81. 82.
    Shimose LA, Doi Y, Bonomo RA, DE Pascale D, Viau RA, Cleary T, Namias N, Kett DH, Munoz-Price LS. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:2346–8.Google Scholar
  82. 83.
    Munoz-Price LS, Fajardo-Aquino Y, Arheart KL, Cleary T, Depascale D, Pizano L, Namias N, Rivera JI, O’Hara JA, Doi Y. Aerosolization of Acinetobacter baumannii in a trauma ICU*. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:1915–8.Google Scholar
  83. 84.
    Perez F, Endimiani A, Ray AJ, Decker BK, Wallace CJ, Hujer KM, Ecker DJ, Adams MD, Toltzis P, Dul MJ, Windau A, Bajaksouzian S, Jacobs MR, Salata RA, Bonomo RA. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae across a hospital system: impact of post-acute care facilities on dissemination. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1807–18.Google Scholar
  84. 85.
    Sengstock DM, Thyagarajan R, Apalara J, Mira A, Chopra T, Kaye KS. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: an emerging pathogen among older adults in community hospitals and nursing homes. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1611–6.Google Scholar
  85. 86.
    Villegas MV, Hartstein AI. Acinetobacter outbreaks, 1977–2000. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24:284–95.Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    Maragakis LL, Cosgrove SE, Song X, Kim D, Rosenbaum P, Ciesla N, Srinivasan A, Ross T, Carroll K, Perl TM. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with pulsatile lavage wound treatment. J Am Med Assoc. 2004;292:3006–11.Google Scholar
  87. 88.
    Ray A, Perez F, Beltramini AM, Jakubowycz M, Dimick P, Jacobs MR, Roman K, Bonomo RA, Salata RA. Use of vaporized hydrogen peroxide decontamination during an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection at a long-term acute care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:1236–41.Google Scholar
  88. 89.
    Rodriguez-Bano J, Garcia L, Ramirez E, Martinez-Martinez L, Muniain MA, Fernandez-Cuenca F, Beltran M, Galvez J, Rodriguez JM, Velasco C, Morillo C, Perez F, Endimiani A, Bonomo RA, Pascual A. Long-term control of hospital-wide, endemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii through a comprehensive “bundle” approach. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:715–22.Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    Grundmann HJ, Towner KJ, Dijkshoorn L, Gerner-Smidt P, Maher M, Seifert H, Vaneechoutte M. Multicenter study using standardized protocols and reagents for evaluation of reproducibility of PCR-based fingerprinting of Acinetobacter spp. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:3071–7.Google Scholar
  90. 91.
    Higgins PG, Dammhayn C, Hackel M, Seifert H. Global spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:233–8.Google Scholar
  91. 92.
    Dijkshoorn L, Aucken H, Gerner-Smidt P, Janssen P, Kaufmann ME, Garaizar J, Ursing J, Pitt TL. Comparison of outbreak and nonoutbreak Acinetobacter baumannii strains by genotypic and phenotypic methods. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:1519–25.Google Scholar
  92. 93.
    Diancourt L, Passet V, Nemec A, Dijkshoorn L, Brisse S. The population structure of Acinetobacter baumannii: expanding multiresistant clones from an ancestral susceptible genetic pool. PLoS ONE. 2010;5, e10034.Google Scholar
  93. 94.
    Decker BK, Perez F, Hujer AM, Hujer KM, Hall GS, Jacobs MR, Gebreyes WA, Zoll ST, Massire C, Eshoo MW, Ecker DJ, Rather PN, Bonomo RA. Longitudinal analysis of the temporal evolution of Acinetobacter baumannii strains in Ohio, USA, by using rapid automated typing methods. PLoS ONE. 2012;7, e33443.Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    Woodford N, Turton JF, Livermore DM. Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria: the role of high-risk clones in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2011;35:736–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 96.
    Wood GC, Hanes SD, Croce MA, Fabian TC, Boucher BA. Comparison of ampicillin-sulbactam and imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of acinetobacter ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1425–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Chu H, Zhao L, Wang M, Liu Y, Gui T, Zhang J. Sulbactam-based therapy for Acinetobacter baumannii infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Braz J Infect Dis. 2013;17:389–94.Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    Choi JY, Kim CO, Park YS, Yoon HJ, Shin SY, Kim YK, Kim MS, Kim YA, Song YG, Yong D, Lee K, Kim JM. Comparison of efficacy of cefoperazone/sulbactam and imipenem/cilastatin for treatment of Acinetobacter bacteremia. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47:63–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 99.
    Nation RL, Velkov T, Li J. Colistin and polymyxin B: peas in a pod, or chalk and cheese? Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:88–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 100.
    Landersdorfer CB, Nation RL. Colistin: how should it be dosed for the critically ill? Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;36:126–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 101.
    Garonzik SM, Li J, Thamlikitkul V, Paterson DL, Shoham S, Jacob J, Silveira FP, Forrest A, Nation RL. Population pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate and formed colistin in critically ill patients from a multicenter study provide dosing suggestions for various categories of patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3284–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 102.
    Bergen PJ, Landersdorfer CB, Zhang J, Zhao M, Lee HJ, Nation RL, Li J. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ‘old’ polymyxins: what is new? Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;74:213–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Valachis A, Samonis G, Kofteridis DP. The role of aerosolized colistin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Crit Care Med. 2015;43:527–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Karaiskos I, Galani L, Baziaka F, Giamarellou H. Intraventricular and intrathecal colistin as the last therapeutic resort for the treatment of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis and meningitis: a literature review. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013;41:499–508.Google Scholar
  104. 105.
    Lim SK, Lee SO, Choi SH, Choi JP, Kim SH, Jeong JY, Woo JH, Kim YS. The outcomes of using colistin for treating multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species bloodstream infections. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:325–31.Google Scholar
  105. 106.
    Lopez-Cortes LE, Cisneros JM, Fernandez-Cuenca F, Bou G, Tomas M, Garnacho-Montero J, Pascual A, Martinez-Martinez L, Vila J, Pachon J, Rodriguez Bano J. Monotherapy versus combination therapy for sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: analysis of a multicentre prospective cohort. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69:3119–26.Google Scholar
  106. 107.
    Poulikakos P, Tansarli GS, Falagas ME. Combination antibiotic treatment versus monotherapy for multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter infections: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 2014;33:1675–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 108.
    Liu Q, Li W, Feng Y, Tao C. Efficacy and safety of polymyxins for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9, e98091.Google Scholar
  108. 109.
    Durante-Mangoni E, Signoriello G, Andini R, Mattei A, De Cristoforo M, Murino P, Bassetti M, Malacarne P, Petrosillo N, Galdieri N, Mocavero P, Corcione A, Viscoli C, Zarrilli R, Gallo C, Utili R. Colistin and rifampicin compared with colistin alone for the treatment of serious infections due to extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:349–58.Google Scholar
  109. 110.
    Aydemir H, Akduman D, Piskin N, Comert F, Horuz E, Terzi A, Kokturk F, Ornek T, Celebi G. Colistin vs. the combination of colistin and rifampicin for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1214–22.Google Scholar
  110. 111.
    Pogue JM, Kaye KS. Is there really no benefit to combination therapy with colistin? Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013;11:881–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 112.
    Sirijatuphat R, Thamlikitkul V. Preliminary study of colistin versus colistin plus fosfomycin for treatment of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58:5598–601.Google Scholar
  112. 113.
    Cheng A, Chuang YC, Sun HY, Sheng WH, Yang CJ, Liao CH, Hsueh PR, Yang JL, Shen NJ, Wang JT, Hung CC, Chen YC, Chang SC. Excess mortality associated with colistin-tigecycline compared with colistin-carbapenem combination therapy for extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia: a multicenter prospective observational study. Crit Care Med. 2015;43:1194–204.Google Scholar
  113. 114.
    Sader HS, Flamm RK, Jones RN. Tigecycline activity tested against antimicrobial resistant surveillance subsets of clinical bacteria collected worldwide (2011). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76:217–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 115.
    Karageorgopoulos DE, Kelesidis T, Kelesidis I, Falagas ME. Tigecycline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (including carbapenem-resistant) Acinetobacter infections: a review of the scientific evidence. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:45–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 116.
    Lee YT, Tsao SM, Hsueh PR. Clinical outcomes of tigecycline alone or in combination with other antimicrobial agents for the treatment of patients with healthcare-associated multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:1211–20.Google Scholar
  116. 117.
    Castanheira M, Mendes RE, Jones RN. Update on Acinetobacter species: mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and contemporary in vitro activity of minocycline and other treatment options. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59 Suppl 6:S367–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 118.
    Pogue JM, Neelakanta A, Mynatt RP, Sharma S, Lephart P, Kaye KS. Carbapenem-resistance in gram-negative bacilli and intravenous minocycline: an antimicrobial stewardship approach at the Detroit Medical Center. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59 Suppl 6:S388–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 119.
    Goff DA, Bauer KA, Mangino JE. Bad bugs need old drugs: a stewardship program’s evaluation of minocycline for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59 Suppl 6:S381–7.Google Scholar
  119. 120.
    Briers Y, Walmagh M, Van Puyenbroeck V, Cornelissen A, Cenens W, Aertsen A, Oliveira H, Azeredo J, Verween G, Pirnay JP, Miller S, Volckaert G, Lavigne R. Engineered endolysin-based “Artilysins” to combat multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens. mBio. 2014;5:e01379–14.Google Scholar
  120. 121.
    Perez F, Bonomo RA. Vaccines for Acinetobacter baumannii: thinking “out of the box”. Vaccine. 2014;32:2537–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medicine and Research Services, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Pharmacology, Molecular Biology and MicrobiologyUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Medical Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veteran Affairs Medical CenterUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA
  4. 4.Vice Chair for Veteran Affairs, Department of MedicineUniversity Hospitals Case Medical CenterClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations