This chapter describes how the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) augmented its efforts to scale up research activities in the areas of diagnostics, vaccine development, and treatment, as well as social and behavioral research to identify successful approaches to prevention. In addition, GPA sought to ensure that research in low- and middle-income countries was conducted with the highest ethical and technical standards, including addressing false claims about cures and treatments. We explain how GPA tried to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies to make early antiretroviral treatments universally affordable and accessible, and the dissapointing lack of support from Western AIDS activists to improve access in low-and middle- income countries. The chapter also details GPA’s decision to integrate the World Health Organization’s sexually transmitted disease program into GPA. In addition, we describe efforts to document success stories in HIV prevention research to define the essential elements of an HIV prevention program and demonstrate that effective HIV prevention was possible.