A Centrality-Based ACK Forwarding Mechanism for Efficient Routing in Infrastructureless Opportunistic Networks

  • Sanjay K. Dhurandher
  • Isaac Woungang
  • Anshu Rajendra
  • Piyush Ghai
  • Periklis Chatzimisios
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 169)


In the next generation Internet, it is expected that human, smart devices, and “things” will be able to communicate and interact with each other opportunistically in order to share their data. An analysis of this type of relationship is made possible due to the advent of the Opportunistic Internet of Things (OppIoT), a new paradigm that enable information sharing and dissemination among opportunistic communities formed based on human mobility and opportunistic contacts. Designing data dissemination and routing protocols for opportunistic IoT is a challenge since contacts between nodes and users’ social behaviors are to be tighten together as design constraints. Nonetheless, as opportunistic networking rely on spontaneous connectivity between the users and wireless devices, it can be argued that OppIoT is a form of opportunistic social networks (OppNets) extension, with focus on the relationship between human and opportunistic connection of smart things. As such, some routing protocols that have been designed to work for infrastructureless OppNets can also be applied in OppIoT systems. In this context, the History Based Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks (HiBOp) is an appealing choice. In this paper, an acknowledgement (ACK) forwarding mechanism to boost the performance of HiBOp is proposed based on the concept of centrality. Simulation results are provided, showing that HiBOp with centrality outperforms HiBOp in terms of predefined performance metrics.


Opportunistic networks (OppNets) Centrality ACK Routing protocol HiBOp 


  1. 1.
    Guo, B., Zhang, D., Wang, Z., Yu, Z., Zhou, X.: Opportunistic IoT: exploring the harmonious interaction between human and the Internet of Things. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 36(6), 1531–1539 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boldrini, C., Conti, M., Delmastro, F., Passarella, A.: Context and social-aware middleware for opportunistic networks. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 33(5), 525541 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boldrini, C., Conti, M., Jacopini, J., Passarella, A.: HiBOp: a history based routing protocol for opportunistic networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2007), Helsinki, 18–21 June 2007, pp. 1–12 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vahdat, A., Becker, D.: Epidemic routing for partially-connected ad hoc networks, Technical report CS-2000-06. Duke University, July 2000Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thrasyvoulos, S., Psounis, K., Raghavendra, C.S.: Spray and focus: efficient mobility-assisted routing for heterogeneous and correlated mobility. In: Proceedings of Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom 2007), White Plains, 19–23 March 2007, pp. 79–85 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang, T.-K., Lee, C.-K., Chen, L.-J.: PRoPHET+: an adaptive PRoPHET-based routing protocol for opportunistic network. In: Proceedings of the 24th IEEE AINA, Perth, 20–23 April 2010, pp. 112–119 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burgess, J., Gallagher, B., Jensen, D., Levine, B.N.: MaxProp: routing for vehicle-based disruption-tolerant networks. In: Proceedings of INFOCOM 2006, Barcelona, 23–29 April 2006, pp. 1–11 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dhurandher, S.K., Sharma, D.K., Woungang, I., Bhat, S: HBPR: history based prediction for routing in infrastructure-less opportunistic networks. In: Proceedings of the AINA 2013, Barcelona, pp. 931–936 (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keränen A., Ott J., Kärkkäinen T.: The ONE simulator for DTN protocol evaluation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques (SIMUTools 2009), Rome, 2–6 March 2009Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjay K. Dhurandher
    • 1
  • Isaac Woungang
    • 2
  • Anshu Rajendra
    • 1
  • Piyush Ghai
    • 1
  • Periklis Chatzimisios
    • 3
  1. 1.CAITFS, Netaji Subhas Institute of TechnologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Department of InformaticsATEITHEThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations